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32 Cards in this Set

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What is negative feedback?
A method of maintaining homeostasis:
- receptor detects change in conditions
- integrator (often the brain) evaluates change
- effector initiated by integrator
Ectotherms
Obtain body heat from their environment

AKA poikilotherms
Endotherms
Generate their own body heat

AKA homeotherms
Four types of respiration
1 - Direct with environment
(Annelids, Platyhelminthes)
2 - Gills: evaginated structures, use
countercurrent exchange
(Annelids, fish)
3 - Tracheae: oxygen enters through
spiracles, diffuses out of moist
ends (Insects)
4 - Lungs: invaginated structures
Open circulatory systems
- blood pumped into cavity called
hemocoel
- oxygen and nutrient rich fluid called
hemolymph bathes cells
- hemolymph returns to heart through
ostia
Path of blood through heart
1 - deoxygenated blood enters through
two vena cava into right atrium
2 - blood moves through right AV valve
into right ventricle; blood pumped
to pulmonary artery through
pulmonary semilunar valve
3 - oxygenated blood goes to left
atrium through pulmonary veins
4 - blood passes through left AV valve
into left ventricle; pumped into
aorta through aortic semilunar
valve
Maintenance of the cardiac cycle
- regulated by autorhythmic cells
- three steps:
1 - SA node contracts both atria, sends
delayed impulse to AV node
2 - AV node sends impules to bundle of
His, which branches into Purkinje
fibers; both ventricles contract
3 - when ventricles contract (systole)
blood goes thru pulmonary arteries
and aorta, AV valves close; when
ventricles relax (diastole),
semilunar valves close
Red blood cells
- erythrocytes
- transport oxygen
- catalyze conversion of CO2 and H2O
to HCO3 + H+
White blood cells
- leukocytes
- five major groups of disease-fighting
cells
Platelets
- involved in blood clotting
- convert inactive fibrinogen to active
fibrin
Plasma
- liquid portion of blood
- bulk flow of CO2 takes place in it
Flame cells
- found in platyhelminthes, like
planaria
- body fluids moved by cilia through
tube system
- wastes excreted through pores
Nephridia
- found in pairs in most annelids
- interstitial fluids enter through
ciliated nephrostome
- fluids concentrated as they go
through collecting tubule
- waste goes out through excretory pore
Malpighian tubules
- arthropods
- attach to midgut, body fluids from
hemolymph collect
- materials retained pass through walls
of midgut as other fluids go on
- excreted through anus
Structure of nephridia
1 - Bowman's capsule- bulb-shaped body,
branch of renal artery enters,
branches into dense capillary
structure called glomerulus
2 - Convoluted tubule- winding tube;
proximal c.t. at Bowman's capsule,
distal c.t. joins at collecting
duct; in the middle, forms loop of
Henle, surrounded by capillaries
3 - collecting duct - empties into
renal pelvis
Operation of human nephron
1 - Filtration - pressure forces water
and small solute (glucose, salts,
nitrogen waste) into Bowman's
capsule, which will go to c.t.
2 - Secretion - as filtrate goes thru
proximal and distal c.t., extra
fluid is selectively secreted
3 - Reabsorption - H20 is reabsorbed,
salts join interstitial fluids,
which are concentrated as they exit
Hormones involved in urine salt regulation
1 - Antidiruetic hormone (ADH)-
increases reabsorption of water
and concen. of salt in urine by
increasing permeability of duct to
water
2 - Aldosterone- increases reabsorption
of water and salt; increases
permeability of distal c.t. and
collecting duct to salt
Salivary amylase
secreted in mouth by salivary glands; begins breakdown of starch into maltose
Peristalsis
Muscular contractions that move food through esophagus
Purposes of the stomach
1 - storage
2 - mixing (into chyme)
3 - physical breakdown (protein
denaturing, muscle action)
4 - chemical breakdown (proteins broken
by pepsin)
5 - controlled release (chyme movement
into sm. intestine controlled by
pyloric sphincter
Proteolytic enzymes
AKA proteases
Digest proteins
Include trypsin and chymotrypsin
Produced by wall of sm. intestine
Proteolytic enzymes
AKA proteases
Digest proteins
- aminopeptidase (sm. intestine)
- trypsin (pancreas)
- chymotrypsin (pancreas)
Phosphatases
enzymes from the small intestine
digest nucleotides
Enzymes for starch digestion
- maltase (sm. intestine)
- lactast (sm. intestine)
- pancreatic amylase (pancreas)
- salivary amylase (mouth)
Gastrin
- hormone used in digestion
- produced by stomach lining cells
when food reaches stomach or body
senses food availability; stimulates
cells to produce gastric juices
Secretin
- produced by cells of duodenum
- stimulates pancreas to produce
bicarbonate to neutralize acid chyme
Cholecystokinin
- produced by small intestine
- stimulates gall bladder to release bile
Auxin
AKA indoleacetic acid (IAA)
- promotes elongation of cells
- increases H+ in primary cell walls,
loosening cellulose fibers, which
lets turgor pressure make cell expand
Gibberellins
AKA giberellic acid (more than 60 types)
- interact with auxins to stimulate
shoot growth
- promote fruit development
- promote seed germiniation
- inhibit aging of leaves
Cytokinins
- stimulate cytokinesis
- influence direction of organogenesis
- stimulate growth of lateral buds
- delay senescence
Ethylene
- gas that promotes ripening of fruit
- stimulates flower production
- inhibits elongation of roots, stems,
and leaves
- influences leaf abscission
Abscissic acid (ABA)
- growth inhibitor
- in buds, causes scales to form for
dormancy periods
- dormancy broken by giberellins