Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/89

Click to flip

89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Chordates characteristics
notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharengeal slits, muscular postanal tail
Vertebrate chordates characteristics
neural crest, cephaliztion(forming of "brain"), vertebral column, closed circulatory system.
Aganthans
jawless fishes.
lamprey, hagfish.
chondrichthyes
cartilageous jawed fish such as sharks and rays. have jaws and pharyngeal gill slits. oviparous (eggs), ovoviviparous (eggs stay inside mother) or viviparous (young develop in uterus)
osteichthyes
boney fish with true bones and swim bladders.
Actinoperygii: ray finned fishes
Sarcopterygii: lobe-finned fishes.
Amphibians
vertebrets that lay eggs in water or moist environments. gas exchange through skin. complex mating behaviours.
(frogs, salamanders, newts)
Reptiles
vertebrets with amniotic eggs, dry scaley skin.
some viviparous but mostly lay eggs on land.
ectotherms: control body temp. by external means.
(turtles, snakes, crocodiles)
Birds
flying reptiles with feathers, amniotic eggs, and scales on legs. Endothermic heating. 4 chambered heart. internal fertalization and warm eggs.
mammals
hair (keratin), endthermic, 4 chambered heart, mammary glands (milk for offspring), teeth varie, diaphragm. Have large brains and include monotremes, marsupials, and placentals.
4 stage origin of life hypothesis
1. abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules.
2. monomers join to polymers.
3. self-replicating molecules (RNA, ribozmes)
4. packaged into probionts
Whittaker 1969
5 kingdoms arranged
peptidoglycan
prokaryotes have in plasma membrane and archaea don't.
cocci
bacteria spheres
bacilli
bacteria rods
spirilla
bacterial helices.
gram stain
positive: simple walls with lots of peptidoglycan and easy to kill.
negative: complex walls with less peptidoglycan but lipopolysaccharides.
SSU-rRNA
highly conserved sequances of RNA that are easy to trace evolutionarily.
Archaea qualities
extremophiles: live in extreme conditions.
methanogens: produce methane as product.
halophiles: live in high-salt environments.
therophiles: live in high-temperature environments.
protists
can be photoautotrophs, heterotrophs, or mixotrophs (both). most are motile and very diverse in size. reproduction can be asexual, sexual or syngamy. symbiosis and endomembranes allow for compartments and complexity.
land plants cassification
1. Apical meristems make new tissue.
2. multicellular, dependent embryos and placental transfer cells.
3. alteration of generations.
4. walled spores produced in sporangia.
5. multicellular gametangia.
usually. . . .
6. waxy cuticle.
7. xylem and phloem.
8. stomata.
animals
store carbohydrates as glycogen (liver)
no cell walls with junctions in cells: desmosomes, gap and tight.
Nervous and muscle tissue.
Usually sexual reproduction with flagellated sperm and nonmotile egg.
Cambrian explosion
diversified animal life.
choanoflagellates
free living or colonial flagellated unicellular forms of life. closest living relative to animals.
ectoderm
the embryonic tissue that later covers the outside of the body.
mesoderm
later forms the coelem and develops into cardiac, skeletal, and smooth (gut)muscles, organs, blood cells,
endoderm
third layer of embryonic development that forms the lungs, some of the liver, bladder, digestive tube, parts of the mouth, etc.
diploblastic
two primary germ layers in the ovum: endoderm and ectoderm
triploblastic
three layers in the ovum: ectoderm, endoderm and the mesoderm
Acoelomate
animals like flatworms with no body cavity at all.
Pseudocoelomate
animals like roundworms with a "false cavity" (a fully functioning body cavity with partial mesoderm lining and organs heald loosely and not well organized)
Coelomate
Animals with a fully funcioning, mesoderm-lined (called Peritoneum)body cavity with organized organs heald in fluid. includes most bilateral animals.
Protosomes
a superphylum of animals in which the blastopore becomes the mouth. also has spiral clevage.
deuterosomes
a superphylum of animals in which the primary embryonic opening (blastopore) becomes the anus. also has radial clevage.
Porifera
sponges with 2 germ layers.
Cnidaria
corals and jellyfish with 3 germ layers.
ctenophora
comb jellies
Radiata
other kinds of jellyfish.
Acoelomates
animals with no body cavity such as flatworms.
Platyhelminthes
flukes and tapeworms with 3 germ layers.
Pseudocoelomates
animals with a "false cavity" such as roundworms.
Rotifera
freshwater microscopic animals with anterior rotating cillia.
Nematoda
nematodes with bilateral symmetry and notochords.
coelomates
animals with a body cavity.
nemertea
ribbon worms; free living marine worms with unsegmented body covered in cillia. acoelmates.
lophopores
a feeding organ found in aquatic animals made up of a ring of cilliated tentacles surrounding a mouth.
Mollusca
Animals living in secreted shells such as snails and many marine animals.
Annelida
segmented worms such as earthworms and leeches.
Arthropoda
insects, crabs, and spiders, this is composed of animals with a head, thorax and abdomen, three or more pairs of segemented legs, and a chitinous exoskeleton.
Echinodermata
starfish, sea lillies, and sand dollars, these animals sometimes have external spines and usually have 5 parts around an axis.
Chordata
the phylum with few invertebrets and all vertebrets. have a notochord, dorsal nerve cord, gill slits, and post-anal tail.
gastrovascular cavity
a single opening in some animals used for both the mouth and the anus.
suspention feeders
feed by food passing through an opening in the body, like sponges.
benthic
live on the bottom of the ocean.
ventral mouths
mouths found on the bottom of the creature.
viviparous
young develop in uterus
oviparous
lay eggs.
ovoviviparous
eggs stay inside mother until hatching.
calcium carbonate skeleton
a characterisic of vertebrets.
amniotic egg
major evolutionary adaptation for viviparous animals.
allantois
excratory, respatory part of an amniotic egg.
amnion
protection layer of amniotic egg.
chorion
gas exchange part of an amniotic egg.
yolk sac
food part of amniotic egg.
motoremes
mammals that lay eggs.
marsupials
mammals that finish embryotic development after birth connected to the mother in a pouch.
eutharians
placental mammals. embryo remains attached to placenta untill fully formed. greater parental care.
Miller
synthesized ammino acids
penecillin
stops creation of cell walls of bacteria.
charophycea
branch of Green algae without alteration of generations.
phragmoplasts
the scaffolding to cell plate formation (cell wall in cytokinesis)
sporopollenin
make up the strong walls of spore/pollen.
archegonia
contain sporophyte embryoes.
sporophyte
diploid part of alteration of generations
gametophyte
haploid part of alteration of generations.
bryophytes
mosses without vascular tissue, roots, seeds, pollen, flowers, and fruit with the haploid gametophyte dominant. they have flagellated sperm.
lycophytes
the club mosses with vascular tissue, rhizomes, flagellated sperm, and sporophyte dominant.
pterophytes
ferns with roots, rhizomes, flagellated sperm, and sporophyte dominant.
gymnosperms
plants with roots, vascular tissues, pollen, seeds, and sprorophyte dominant.
angiosperms
flowering plants with vascular tisue, roots, pollen, seeds, flower, and fruit and sporophyte dominant.
charophyceans
green algea.
(flagellated sperm)
eutharian
placental
schizocoelons
solid mesoderm that splits to form coelom. protostomes.
eterocoelons
folds of archentron form coelon. deturestomes.
archentron
pre-gut tissue cells.
coelom
lined body cavity that keeps organs in place.
triploblastic
3 layers of tissue (needs to be for aceolmates)
blastopore
first pore of zygote forming 2 layers.
gastrula
second inner layer of zygote that will form gut.
epiphyte
plants that grow on other plants. (parasitic or symbiotic)