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43 Cards in this Set

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Large molecules made up of repeating molecules
Polymers
Subunits of Polymers - linked together by dehydration synthesis, requiring ATP and enzymes; separated by hyrdolysis
Monomers
Monomers connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a water molecule
Condensation reaction (dehydration synthesis)
Bonds between monomers are broken by the addition of water molecules
Hydrolysis
Polysaccharides - startch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
Carbohydrates
Simple surgars, monomers of Carbohydrates
Monosacchardies
Two monosacchardies joined by glycosidic linkage
Disacchardies
Covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis
Glycosidic Linkage
Many monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkage
Polysaccharides
Storage polysaccharide - polymer consisting entirely of glucose monomers - joined by 1-4 linkages
Starch
Polymer of glucose that are stored in liver and muscle cells
Glycogen
Major component of tough walls that enclose plant cells
Cellulose
Used by anthropods to build their exoskeleton - becomes hardened when encrusted with CaCO4
Chitin
Little or no affinity for water; does not include polymers - behavior based on their molecular structure - mostly of hydrocarbons (nonpolar)
Lipids
Constructed by glycerol and fatty acids (using dehydration synthesis - creates bond ester linkage; no monomers)
Fats
Alcohol with three carbons, each with a hydroxyl group
Glycerol
Long carbon skeleton - one end with carboxyl group; chain of nonpolar C-H bonds
Fatty acids
Three fatty acids (tails), linked to one glycerol molecule (the head)
Triaclyglycerol
No double bonds between the carbon atoms; saturated with hydrogen - solid at room temperature
Saturated Fatty Acid
One or more double bonds - kink in tail wherever a double bond occurs - liquid
Unsaturated fatty acid
Only two fatty acid tails - third joined to a phosphate group - negative in electron charge - tails are hydrophobic
Phospholipids
Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
Steroids
Animal cell membranes; precursor from which other steroids are synthesized - control fluidity of cell membrane
Cholesterol
One or more polypeptides folded and coiled to specific conformations - function depends on its structure
Protein
Organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups - alpha carbon with an amino group, carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable group (R)
Amino acids
Physical and chemical properties that determine the unique characteristics of an amino acid
R group (side chain)
Result of when two amino acids have both carboxyl group adjacent with other amino group
Peptide bond
Unique sequence of amino acids - can affect a protein's conformation
Primary structure
Coiled or folded patterns - result of hydrogen bonds at intervals along the polypeptide backbone
Secondary structure
Coil held together by hydrogen bonding between every fourth amino acid
Alpha helix
Two or more regions of the polypeptide chain lie parallel each other - hydrogen bonds hold the structure together - usually in fibrous proteins
Beta pleated sheets
Superimposed on the patterns of secondary structure - irregular contortions from interactions between side chains (R groups) of the various amino acids
Tertiary structure
Weak chemical bond formed when molecules that do not mix with water coalesce to exclude the water
Hydrophobic interaction
Covalent bonds form where two cyteine monomers (amino acids with sulfhydryl groups, -SH on their side chains), are brought close together by the folding of the protein (-S-S-)
Disulfide bridges
Overall protein structure that results from the aggregation of the two or more polypeptide chains
Quaternary Structure
Unravelling of the protein - inactive
Denaturation
Monomers with nucleic acids as polymers - nitrogeneous base, pentose (5-carbon sugar), and phosphate group
Nucleotides
6-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms - Cytosine (C), Thymine (T), and Uracil (U) - 1 ring
Pyrimidine
6-membered ring fused to a 5-member ring - Adenine (A), and Guanine (G) - 2 rings
Purines
Pentose connected to the nitrogeneous base in DNA
Deoxyribose
Pentose connected to the nitrogeneous base in RNA
Ribose
Nucleic acid polymer - nucleoties joined by covalent phosphodiester linkages between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of the next
Polynucleotide
2 polynucleotides that spiral around
Double helix