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89 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the essential elements of life?
mnemonic = SPONCH
sulfur, phosphorus, oxygennitrogen, carbon, hydrogen
What is electric neutrality?
# of protons = # of electrons
What is a compound?
2 or more atoms combined (in a fixed ratio) using chemical bonds
What is the diff between the following: ionic bond vs covalent bond
ionic = bond where electrons are transferred from one atom to another

covalent = electrons are shared
What are the two types of covalent bonds? Describe each.
nonpolar covalent = electrons shared equally

polar covalent = electrons shared unequally (but still shared!!!)
What is a polar molecule ?
a molecule that has partial positive and negative charges
What are hydrogen bonds?
Not actually bonds but strong intermolecular forces. Hydrogen bonds are bonds between partial positive charge on a hydrogen atom in a molecule and the partial negaive charge on an atom in another molecule
Water molecules have a strong tendency to stick to eachother. What is this property called?
What is adhesion? Why does water exhibit this property?
Adhesion = the preference of a molecule to stick to other molecules.

h20 demonstrates adehesion due to hydrogen bonding
What is heat capacity?
Definition : the quantity of heat required to change the temperatue of a substance by one degree

Translation: the ability of a substance to store heat
What type of ions do alkaline solutions release?
alkaline = basic

basic solutions relase OH- ions
A solution with a low concentration of H+ ions will have what type of pH?
High or basic pH
A substance gets less acidic. Its pH rises from 7 to 8. Describe what has happened to the concentration of H+ ions in that solution after the change.
The H+ concentration has decrased ten fold.

An decrease of one pH number correspnds to a tenfold (10x) increase in hydrogen concentration
What is the difference between organic and inorganic molecules
ogranic has carbon

inorganic doesnt have carbon
What is a carbohydrate
compound containing C, H and O
What is the normal ratio of C to H to O in a carbohydtrate
C = 1
H = 2
0 = 1
What does saccharide mean?
What is the difference between a monosaccharide, disaccharide, and a polysaccharide?
mono = one saccharide = sugar therfore mono saccharide = a carbohydrate made up of only one type sugar

di = 2 therefore a dissacharide has two types of sugars

poly = many
What are the two most common sugars?
glucose and fructose
What is the most common ratio of Carbons : Hydrogens in carbohydrate moelcules?
1:2 ... most carbohydrates follow the form CnH2nOn
What are the two most common biologic examples of monosarccharides? How many carbons does each sugar contain?
glucose (most abundant) and fructose (common in fruits)

both contain 6 carbons
What's the difference between an alpha glucose and a beta glucose?
H and OH position on the 1st carbon ... glucose has a double bond with O on its 1st carbon where fructose has that O double bond on its second carbon...
When depicted in ring form, which sugar forms a five element ring?
fructose = five element ring ( the ring has 4 carbons and an oxygen although a fructose is 6 carbon sugar)...

glucose forms a 6 carbon ring (5 Cs and 1 O although a 6 carbon sugar)
When two monosaccharides are combined they form a ________?
When a disaccharide is made from two monosaccharides what is the chemical biproduct produced?

The H from one sugar come bines with the OH from the other ... The resulting H20 is released and a bond forms in its place that links the monosaccharides...
What is dehydration synthesis?
The process of combining two molecules to form one molecule and in the process releasing a water molecule from the reaction

Also known as CONDENSATION
What is the opposite (aka reverse reaction) of dehydration synthesis ?
Define Hydrolysis.
The process of splitting two molecules apart by adding water to break up a bond.
give a synonym for dehydration synthesis
what is the name of the bond formed between two sugar molecules?
glycosidic bond

formed by dehydration synthesis
Name the three most common polysaccarides.
What are two things that polysaccharides are often used for in a cell
Storage and structure
What is cellulose used for in plants?
structural supports ... it makes up the cell wall
Is cellulose made of alpha or beta glucose?
How do plants store alpha glucose?

(The answer is a term ... not just "di/polysaccharides")
What do amino acids contain that carbohydrates do not?
Nitrogen atoms
Name the four parts of an amino acid (the four groups surrounding the central carbon)
1) amino group (NH)

2) carboxyl group (COOH)

3) Hydrogen

4) R group could be anything from a H to 19 chain types
What makes one amino acid different from another?
R group
Whatis another name for the R group of an amino acid?
the side chain
What is the chemical formula for an AMINO group?
What is the chemical formula for an ALKYL group?

long carbon chain witn no double bonds and only CH bonds

(parenthesis code for subscripts)
What is the chemical formula for an METHYL group?
What is the chemical formula for an ETHYL group?

2 carbon chain with no branching and only CH bond character
What is the chemical formula for an PROPYL group?

3 carbon chain with no branches and only CH bond character
What is the chemical formula for an CARBOXYL group?

one double bond from the C to the O and a single bond between the C and the HYDROXYL
What is the chemical formula for an HYDROXYL group?
OH (signal for alcohols and bases!!!)
What is the chemical formula for an ALDEHYDE group?

a double bond from an O to the C at the end of a molecule
What is the chemical formula for an KETO group?

a double bond from an O to a C in the middle of a molecule
What is the chemical formula for an CARBONYL group?
same as a ketone ... CO

a double bond from an O to a C in the middle of a molecule
What is the differnce between a KETO group and an ALDEHYDE group?
Ketone = double bond to O located on an internal C

Aldehyde = double bond located on one of the outermost Carbons
What is the difference between a CARBONYL and a KETO group?
Nothing ... they are both double bonds from c to O in the middle of a molecule
What is the chemical formula for an SULFHYDRYL group?
SH (only a few amino acids have these so HEADS UP when you see them ... when you see them think of disulfide bonds and the type of environment aka reducing vs oxidizing)
What is the difference between an ALDEHYDE group and a CARBONYL group?
Carbonyl = Ketone = double bond to O located on an internal C

Aldehyde = double bond located on one of the outermost Carbons
What is special about PHENYL groups?
C6H5 ... they form RINGS!!!
Amino acids join by forming ________ bonds
In the formation of peptide bonds, what molecule is released?
Peptide bond synthesis involved what form of chemical synthesis reaction?
Dehydration synthesis
Describe the process of peptide bond formation.
the OH from the CARBOXYL combines with the H of the Amino group to form water. Water is excluded and the C and the N are linked by a new peptide bond.
Define polypeptide
string of molecules linked by peptide bonds...

Better description = amino acid
When polypeptide folds to create secondary structure it becomes a ________
What are the elemental components of lipids?
C H and O

!!! but not in 1:2:1 ratio !!!
What is a functional group?
Any of the chemically reactive groups listed in the previous questions ... ketone, amino, methyl, hydroxyl etc
What are the 4 most common examples of lipds?
1) fats
2) oils
3) steroids (ie chloresterol)
4) phospholipids
Triglycerols are composed of the following:
1) 1 glycerol C-C-C
| | |
2) 3 Fatty acids side chains linked to the os (1 side chain for each O
Give the best synonym for triglycerides.
What is a fatty acid
A long carbon chain with an aldehyde at one end ...

this aldehyde will eventually react with one of the Os in glycerol to bind the fatty cid chain to the glycerol molecule
What is a simple lipid
synonymous with neutral fat
Fatty acid side chains can exist in what two states?
saturated or unsaturated
What does it mean to be a saturated (vs unsaturated ) Fatty Acid?
SATURATED fatty acids have NO double bonds between the Cs and Hs of their chain where as UNSATURATED fatty acids have at least one double bond between Cs in the chain
In the making of one triglyceride molecule how many water molecules are released
3 ... on for every Fatty acid side chain

side chains connect to the glycerol molecule via dehydration synthesis
What are the neames of the C-O-C bonds formed after the dehydration synthesis of a triglycerol
ester bonds ... all C-O-C bonds are ester bonds
Define what it means to be a polyunsaturated fatty acid
You must have more than 1 double bond
What are the four components of a phospholipid?
1 glycerol molcule

2 fatty acid side chains

1 phosphate group
Whats the difference between a phopholipid and a triglycerol?
a triglycerol has 3 fatty acid side chains and a phospholipid has 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group
What does the phosphate group allow a phospholipid to do that a triglyceride cant?
The phosphate group is polar thus making the phospholid amphophilic (loves water and fat)...

this allows it to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer

triglycerides are not amphipathic but instead simply hydrophobic
What is the chemical formula for a PHOSPHATE functional group?
When placed on the surface of water, what would a phospholipid do?
the hydrophyllic (water loving) head would orient towards the water while the two fatty acid tails (hydrophobic) would stick out of the water..

When put on the surface of water phospholipids STAND ON THEIR HEADS
What is the basic structure of a steroid?
four linked highly hydrophobic rings linked to a functional group
What is the most common steroid?
what is the main thing that makes a molecule hydrophyllic (water loving)
Charge makes a water more hydrophyllic... remember H20 has partial charge and will want to interact more with charged moleules than uncharched ones
What elemental units do nucleic acids contain?
C H O N and P ...

P is what makes nucleic acid composition different from protein composition
nucleiotides are the building blocks for _________
nucleic acids
Nucleic acids are made up of small subunits called ____________
Name two different types of nucleic acids

ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid
Oparin and Haldane (scientists) came up with what theory about the primordial atmosphere?
Oparin and Haldane theorized that the primordial atmosphere wscomposed of

Methane (CH3)

Ammonia (NH3)

Hydrogen (H2)

Water (H20)

What was Miller and Urey's experiemnts based off the work of Oparin and Haldane?
Miller and Urey simulated the conditions of primitive earth (methane, ammonia, water and hydrogen) ... added electrical charge to simulate lightning and found that they were able to synthesize AMINO ACIDS
What is the term for living organisms that rely on organic molecules for food?
What is the term for organisms that can produce organic molecules that they can then use for sustinence?
Scientists belive that the earliest forms of life were heterotrophs that relied on other organic molecules for energy