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24 Cards in this Set

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polar molecule
water is an example.
it simply means that opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges.
water is very fragile when it is in its _____ form because ___________?
a. liquid
b. it is constantly reconnecting and sepretaing and building new bonds.

--water is one of the most structured liquids because of it.
cohesion
its when hydrogen holds the substance together.
adhesion
the clinging of a substance to another.
how do cohension and adhesion help a plant move water from the ground, to up its stems?
cohesion helps the water getsucked up by the plant, and adhesion is what allowsthe water to be pulled upwards.
surface tension
related to cohesion.

a measure of how difficult it is to break or stretch the surface of a liquid. Water has a greater surface tension then most liquids. Between water and air, theere is a cumulitaive amount of hydrogen bonds that act like a layer over the water.

--this explains why some bugs can walk on water.
kinetic energy.
the energy of motion. anything that moves has kinetic energy.
heat
is the measure of the total amount fo kinetic energy depending on the motion of water.
temperature
is the AVERAGE kinetic energy that explains the intensity of heat. basically measures the avarage amount of heat in a substance.
temperature always travels from _____ to ____ until both are equal.
hot to cold.
specific heat
is the amount of heat required for a one gram of substance to change temperature by one celcius.
heat/rate of evaporation
is the amount of heat that it takes to get one one gram of water to turn into gas.
evaporative cooling
aftyer the top layer of the water evaporates, the new layer is much colder. this is because what evaporated was the hottest molecules, so the molecules that are left are naturally cooler.
solution
something that is entireley homogeous.
solvent
this is the dissolving agent, what makes something disoolve
solute
substance being dissolved.
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the solvent.
hydration shell
this is the sphere around each dissolved ion.
hydrophillic
water-loving molecules.
colloid
oddly enough, not all hydrophillic molecules can be dissolved by water. some are too large and end up just floating within the substance, and they are called COLLOIDS-- the stable suspension of fine particles within a liquid.
molarity
number of moles of solute per liter of solution.

this is the unti of concentration most used by biologists.
hydrogen ion
these are pretty rare and are made when hydrogen bons randomly break and tear parts if each other off. the part that took one bit of the other then becomes hydrogen ion with the charge of +1 and the one that lost the electron is now -1.

the one that is +1 is called Hydronium Ion

the one that is now -1 is called Hydroxide Ion.
dissasociation
thats what happens when a hydrogen bond splits and creates ions. really rare and reversible.
acid vs base.
and acid increase hydrogen ions, while a base reduces the amount of them.