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24 Cards in this Set

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isotope
diffrent neutrons, same amoutn of protons.
atomic number
amount of protons, each elemnt has a unique atomic number.
mass number
electrons + neutrons
atomic mass
neutrons + protons
the first energy level can hold ___ electrons, and the second and further on can hold ___ electrons.
2, 8.
chemical bond
atoms with incomplete valence shells are always searching for other atoms to complete it. so when they find them, they share or trasnfere electrons and that is what is known as a chemical bond.
what are the strongest kinds of chemical bonds?
covalent
ionic.
covalent bond
the sharing of electrons between two atoms.
molecule
two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond.
compound
a combination of two DIFFRENT elements.

if their the same element, it doesnt count.
electronegativity
the attraction level fo an ataom in a covalent bond. the more electronegtivive it is, the more electrons it pulls.
non-polar covalent bonds
a bond that has both atoms with the same amount of electronagitivity and therefore share EQUALLY.
polar covalent bonds
one atom has more electronegativity then another and creates unequal sharing between atoms.
ion
cation
anion
charged atom/molecule
postively charged
negatvitly charged.
ionic bond
because of their oppostive charges, cations and anions are attracted to each other, and is called an ionic bond.
ionic compounds
[sometimes known as salts]
compounds formed by ionic bonds. enviorment effects them, for exampe, in dry weather, it takes a hammer to break salt crystals, but in wet weather they just melt away.
hydrogen bond
CRUCIAL TO LIFE.
happens when a hydrogen atom attaches to a electrongetaive atom that is attached to yet another electrongetive atom.
van der waals interactions
very weak, unless it happens in large quiantities, then its strong due to power in numbers. created by hotspots in a chemical bond that are either negtive or positive.

THIS IS THE REASON A LIZARD CAN WALK UP A WALL.

--works by cumiliative effect.
chemical equilllibruim
point atwhich reactions off-set one another exactly. eventually the forward and bakcwards reactions occur at he same rate, therefore things are still moving, but no effect occurs anymore.
an element is to a ______ as an organ is to a _______.
compound
organism
a trace element isss
an element that is required in very small amounts.
compared to [31]P , the radioactive isoptope [32]P has one more _____.
neutron.
The reactivity of an atom arises from
unpaired electrons in its valence shell.
what is something that ALL anionic atoms have in common?
all have more electrons then protons.