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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the types of reproduction?
Asexual and sexual
Asexual Reproduction
-Production of offspring by a single parent
-Binary fission
-preformed by bacteria, protists, and fungi
Sexual Reproduction
-Sperm and egg each carry one set of genetic information
Who developed the cell theory?
Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow
What is the cell theory?
-Cells are the basic unit of life
-All living organisms are composed of cells
-Cells only come from preexisting cells
What does cell reproduction ensure?
The continuty of life from generation to generation
What does cell reproduction make possible?
A ferilized egg to develop through various embryonic stages and into an adult
How do prokaryotes reproduce?
Through binary fission
How does binary fission work?
-Genes are carried on circular DNA
-Chromosomes are duplicated.
-Cells divide into two identical copies
How many genes do the chromosomes of prokaryotes carry?
about 3000
What are the chromosomes made of?
60% protein
40% DNA
How many genes do the chromosomes of eukaryotes carry?
about 100000
What are chromosome composed of?
What is chromatin?
A combination of DNA and histone proteins.
What happens when chromatin coils up?
It forms distinct chromosomes
What happens before cell divison?
The chromosomes divide into two copies forming sister chromatids
What type of gene do the sister chromatids contain?
Identical genes
What holds the sister chromatids together and where?
A centromere in the middle
What is a centromere?
A protein disk
What is the G0 phase?
The phase for cells that do not replicate such as muscle and nerve cells
What is the G1 phase?
-Period before DNA synthesis begins
-Time when cell increases its supply of proteins, organelles, and grows in size
What is the S phase?
-Phase when DNA synthesis occurs
-At the beginning each chromosome is single and at the end there are two sister chromatids
What is the G2 phase?
-Spans the time from the completion of DNA synthesis to the onset of cell division
-Time of metabolic activity (proteins are made for cell divison)
What is the M phase?
-nulceus and its content divide and are evenly distributed to form two daughter nuclei
-chromosomes are visible
What is the C phase?
-usually begins before mitosis is complete
-division of cytoplasm
What happens during propahse?
-nucleus disappears
-chromosomes condense
-spindle fibers form
-centrioles move to poles
What do the spindle fibers do?
Help to move chromosomes
What do the centrioles do?
Help form spindle fibers
Where are centrioles found?
In animal cells
What happens during metaphase?
-chromosomes line up in a single file line in middle of cell
-spindle fibers span length of cell
-kinecticore connencts spindle fibers to centromere
What happens during anaphase?
-sister chromatids seperate
-spindle fibers shorten
-cell elongates
What happens during telophase?
-opposite pf propahse
-nucleus forms
-chromosomes loosen
-spindle fibers disappear
-centrioles move back to the middle of the cell