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35 Cards in this Set

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Enzymes
-protein molecule that is a biological catalyst
-Does NOT add energy, it lowers the activation energy
-very specific in reactions (3D Shape)
-Reactant is the substrate (what it works on)
-Bind to the substrate at the active site
Enzyme Activity
-Environments affect activity
-Works best when optimal conditions
-35-40*C: too high, denaturization
-Salinity: ions interfere with chemical bonds
-pH: most are around 4-6
Cofactor
-Nonprotein helper that accompanies enzymes
- inorganic: zinc, iron, copper (no C)
- organic: vitamins (with C)
-Usually inorganic
Enzyme Inhibition
-Does not work as well
-Chemicals interfere with activity
Competitive Inhibitor
-Blocks the substrate and precents it from reacting/working
Noncompetitive Inhibitor
-Binds to enzyme other than active site and changes the shape
-Substrate cannot fit anymore
Irreversible
-Covalent Bonds: strong, form between inhibitor and enzyme
Reversible
-Hydrogen Bonds: weak, form between inhibitor and enzyme
Reaction is to Proceed..
-When the concentration of the substrate is greater than the concentration of the inhibitor
Reaction will stop or slow down..
-When the concentration of the substrate is less than the concentration of the inhibitor
Inhibitors
-Important regulators of cellular metabolism
-Help regulate (negative feedback)
Negative Feedback
-When a metabolic reaction is blocked by its products
-Examples: pesticides, drugs
Allosteric Enzymes
-Has two binding sites
-Active site for the substrate
-A site for allosteric effector
- Inhibitor: binds and induces the inactive form
- Activator: binds and induces the active form
Cell Membrane
-Aka "Plasma Membrane"
-Seperates from the exterior environment
-Organize chemical activities of cells
-Controls movement of molecules in/out
Selectively Permeable
-Allows some substances to cross more easily than others
- Easy: small, polar (exceptions: O2, CO2(Nonpolar))
- Hard: large, charged, nonpolar
Phospholipids
-Form a bilayer
-Phosphate Head: polar, hydrophilic
-Fatty Acid Tails: nonpolar, hydrophobic
Fluid Mosaic Model
-Double Bonds, Fatty Acid Tails
-Proteins embedded in membrane
-Glycoproteins, cholesteral (provides rigidity), and proteins
Protein Types (Cell Membrane)
-Peripheral: inner/outer
-Integral: inside
-Transmembrane: spans across
Protein Functions (Cell Membrane)
-Channel: passageways for hydrophilic substances
-Transport: use ATP to transfer
-Recognition: distinguish the identity of neighboring cells (glycoproteins)
-Adhesion: attach cells to other cells
-Receptor: binding sites for hormones/trigger molecules
-Electron Transfer: transfers electrons during chemical reactions
Lyse
-To Burst
Passive Transport
-Diffusion across a membrane from high to low concentration
-No energy required
-Diffuse until equilibriam
Diffusion
-Particles move from high concentration to love concentration
Osmosis
-Passive transport of water a cross a membrane
-No energy required
Hypertonic
-More solute concentration
Hypotonic
Less (low) concentration
Isotonic
-Equal concentration
Osmoregulation
-Water Regulation: to maintain balance
-Balances osmotice pressure between organism and surrounding environment
Facilitated Diffusion
-No Energy
-Moves down concentration gradient (mostly for big and charged molecules)
-Dependent on availability of transport proteins in membrane
Active Transport
-Requires Energy (ATP)
-Transport protein actively pumps solute across membrane against the concentration gradient; low to high.
Exocytosis
-Process to export large materials
-Membrane enclosed vesicles filled with macromolecules moves to plasma membrane, fuses with it and spills the contents out of the cell
Endocytosis
-Entering
-Take in macromolecule by forming vesicle from plasma membrane
Phagocytosis
-Endocytosis
-Engulfing solid particles/cell eating
Pinocytosis
-Endocytosis
-Taking in liquid/cell drinking
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
-Highly specific
Hypercholesterolemia
-Liver removes excess cholesterol from blood by receptor-mediated endocytosis.