Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/50

Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Global Warming
A long-term rise in the lower atmosphere’s temperature
Organic compounds
Compounds containing carbon and at least one hydrogen atom.
Hydrocarbons
Compounds consisting of only carbon atoms covalently bonded to hydrogen (gas, fossil fuels, etc…)
Functional groups
Particular atoms or clusters of atoms covalently bonded to carbon.
Carbon chains
Backbones of molecules
Methane
Simplest hydrocarbon, CH4
Ball-and-Stick Model
Ball: atom, Stick: bond; Conveys bond angles and how mass is distributed.
Space-Filling Model
Conveys molecules mass and structural complexity.
Ribbon Model
Chains: strings of amino acids.
Alcohols
Have one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) (sugars).
Carbonyl groups
Building blocks of fate and carbohydrates; highly reactive.
Carboxyl groups
Present in amino acids, fatty acids.
Sulfhydryl group
Component of cysteine helps stabilize structure of many proteins.
Monomers
Individual subunits of cells.
Polynomers
Larger molecules required for cell’s structure and functioning.
Enzymes
A class of proteins that make metabolic reactions proceed faster.
Condensation
Enzymes split off an –OH group from one molecule and an H atom from another so that the original molecules bond, -OH + H becomes H20
Cleavage (Hydrolysis)
Enzymes split molecules at specific groups then attach an -OH to one and an H to another (both from water).
Carbohydrates
Molecules consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio (CH2O)n; used as structural materials, transportable forms of energy in cells.
Monosaccharide
Simplest carbohydrates, at least two –OH groups and aldehyde/ketone; most dissolve easily in water.
Glucose
6 carbon atoms (mail energy source, backbone for others)
Oligosaccharide
Short chain of covalently bonded sugar monomers.
Disaccharides
Only two sugar units (e.g. lactose)
Polysaccharides
Straight or branched chains of many sugar monomers
Cellulose
Glucose chains stretch out side by side and bond at –OH --> stabilized chain, resists digestion (cell walls).
Starch
Glucose covalently bonds at angles --> coils like a spiral.
Glycogen
Animal’s equivalent of plants’ sugar-storage
Lipids
Nonpolar hydrocarbons
Fats
Lipids with one to three fatty acids attached to glycerol.
Fatty acid
Has up to 36 carbon atoms, a carboxyl group at one end, and hydrogen atoms occupying the rest or most of the remaining bonding sites.
Triglycerides
“Neutral” fats, three fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol unit.
Phospholipids
Glycerol backbone, two fatty acid tails, and a hydrophilic “head” with a phosphate group and another polar group.
Sterols
Lipids with no fatty acids, backbone of four fused carbon rings.
Waxes
Long-chain fatty acids linked to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings.
Proteins
The most diverse large biological molecules; do jobs.
Amino Acid
A small organic compound consisting of an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and one or more atoms known as the R group.
Peptide Bonds
Join successive amino acids when a cell synthesizes a protein
Polypeptide Chain
A chain of three or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds
Fibrous Proteins
Polypeptide chains in strands or sheets, contribute to cell’s shape or organization.
Globular Proteins
One or more chains folded, help cells and their parts move.
Primary Structure
One of twenty chosen amino acid sequences
Secondary Structure
How a polypeptide chain is structured (spiral, sheetlike, loops, etc…)
Domain
Polypeptide chain, or part of it, that has become self-organized as a structurally stable, functional unit.
Tertiary Structure
Domain formation.
Quaternary structure
Protein structure consisting of two or more polypeptide chains held together by hydrogen or covalent bonds.
Denaturation
The breaking of weak bonds of a protein or any other large molecule that disrupts its shape.
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
String of three phosphate groups attached to sugar component; can transfer phosphate group to other molecules --> acceptor molecules are energized for reaction.
Nucleic Acids
Single and double-stranded molecules comprised of nucleotide monomers; covalent bond connects sugar compound of one nucleotide to a phosphate group of another.
DNA
Double-stranded molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid; passes out instructions for all other cells.
RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
Consists of four kinds of nucleotide monomers; can carry DNA messeges.