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37 Cards in this Set

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Element
A fundamental form of matter that has mass, takes up space, and cannot be broken down into something else on Earth.
Atoms
particles that retain the properties of an element.
Protons
Positive charge, one in every atom.
Neutrons
No charge, one in every atom.
Nucleus
Core of atoms; protons and neutrons
Electrons
Negative charge, normally equal amounts of electrons and protons.
Atomic number
Number of protons in each atom.
Mass number
Combined number of neutrons and protons.
Isotopes
Atoms that vary in neutron number.
Radioisotope
Isotope with unstable nucleus, stabilizes by emitting energy and particles.
Radioactive decay
Transforms a radioisotope into a new element.
Tracers
Substances with an isotope attached to them (often radioisotopes).
Radiation therapy
Radioisotopes stop activity of abnormal body cells.
Orbital
Space around nucleus in which electrons are likely to be found.
Shell model
A “shell” encloses all orbitals available to electrons at the same energy level.
Inert atoms
Atoms with no vacancies.
Chemical bond
Union between electron structures of atoms.
Molecule
Two or more bonded atoms.
Diatomic molecules
Molecules with two of the same element.
Compounds
Molecules with elements in proportions that never vary.
Mixture
Two or more elements or compounds intermingled in proportions that usually vary.
Ionic bond
Association of two ions with opposing charges.
Ion
Atom that has either lost or received an electron (charged).
Covalent bond
sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms.
Non-polar covalent bond
No difference in change between ends of bond, atoms share electrons equally.
Polar covalent bond
More attractive (electronegative atom) exerts stronger pull on electrons --> slightly negative (No molecular net charge).
Hydrogen bond
Weak attraction between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom taking part in a second polar covalent bond.
Hydrophilic substances
Polar substances, attracted to water.
Hydrophobic substances
Non-polar molecules, repel hydrophilic substances and water.
Temperature
Measure of molecular motion.
Cohesion
Capacity to resist rupturing when placed under tension.
“Spheres of Hydration”
Formed when water molecules cluster around oppositely charged solute (dissolved substances) ions or molecules
pH scale
Determines H+ concentration in liquids.
Neutrality
pH = 7, pure water, [H=] = [OH-]
Acids
pH = 0-7, proton donators (lemon juice, coffee)
Bases
pH = 7-14, proton acceptors (seawater, baking soda, “alkaline” fluids).
Salts
Compounds that release ions other than H= and OH- in solutions.