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67 Cards in this Set

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stone age
whole period of early human development

Paleolithic
Lower, Middle, Upper
Neolithic
Paleolithic
"chipped stone age"
Neolithic
"new stone age"
architecture
enclosure of spaces with at least some aesthetic intent
sculpture in the round
self contained, 3 dimensional pieces
relief sculpture
the surrounding material is carved away, forming a background that sets off the figure
sculpture
30,000 BCE
Europe and Asia
bone, ivory, stone and clay
memory image
image that relies on the generic shapes and relationships that readily spring to mind at the mention of an object
cave art
28,000- 10,000 BCE

Upper paleolithic period
-Altamira
shaman
people thought to have special poweres, an ability to foretell events and assist their people through contact with spirits in the form of animals or birds
modeling
shaping
high relief
extends well forward from the background plane
rock shelter art
mesolithic
6000 BCE
Northern spain

distinctive art combining geometric forms and schematic images wiht depictions of people and animals engaged in everyday activities

abstract style

more than a record of daily life bc so accessible
ridge pole
long horizontal beam against which the slanting roof poles were braced
wattle and daub
branches woven in a basketlike pattern, then covered with mud or clay
corbeling
when each layer prohects slightly inward over the one below
corbel vault
inward sloping walls come together at the top
post-and-lintel construction
two or more vertial elementsd are used to support a bridging horizontal one
megalithic architecture
large stone architechture

testifies to a more complex, stratified society

both practical and symbolic function
dolmen
simplest type of megalithic tomb

built on post-and-lintel principle
menhirs
single vertical megaliths
cromlechs
circular patterns of menhirs
alignments
straight rows of menhirs
henge
circle of stones or posts, often surounded by a ditch with built-up embarkments
stonehenge
largest henge from neolithic period

four major building phases btw 2750 and 1500 BCE
mortise-and-tenon joints
a conical projection from one piece fitting into a hole in the next
neolithic sculpture and ceramics
menhir statues
3500-2000 BCE
elements of human figure reduced to near-geometric forms were incised on all four sides of a single upright block

mixed clay with other materials to create entirely new materials
bronze
alloy of tin and copper
earthworks
ex. embankments fortifying their cities
openwork
when space is worked into pattern
lamassus
extraordinary guardian-protectors of palaces and throne rooms
cuneiform
wedge-shaped
ziggurats
stepped pyramid structures with a temple or shrine on top
hieratic scale
when size is associated with importance
stylized
do not conform to natural appearences
votive figures
images dedicated to the gods
iconography
the narrative and allegorical meaning
incised
cut
stele
upright stone slab
monumental
gives the impression of grandeur
power centers
eyes, head, smoothly muscled chest and arms
murals
large paintings or decorations affixed directly to the wall
crenellations
notches
Nebuchandenzzar
most famous Neo-Babylonian ruler
605-562 BCE
great patron of architecture
transformed babylon into one of most splendid cities of its day
glazed
film of glass placed over bricks and fired

process used since 1600 BCE
roundel
small circular motif
grid
system of crossed lines
gold leaf
sheets of hammered gold
Elam
fertile plane between the Tigris River and the Zagros Mountains to the East (in present day Iran)
Altamira
northern spain
cave paintings
12,500 BCE paleolithic
created sculptural effects by painting the bodies of their naimals over and around natural irregularities in the cave's walls and ceilings
Lascaux
southern france
15,000- 13,000 BCE palelithic
most complex cave paintings
most characteristic features emphasized
full of life and energy
unusual bc includes human feautres and seems to tell a story
- depicts vision of a shaman
Le Tuc d'Audoubert
13,000 BCE paleolithic
cave painting
relief sculpture
two bison leaning agaist a ridge of a rocl
Woman from Willendorf
Paleolithic
Rounded shapes that convey stability, dignity and permanence
Conveys body’s fleshiness, exaggerating its female attributes
• Suggests an association with fertility and ultimately the survival of the individual and the family or clan
Chauvet Cave
prehistoric
o Grazing, running or resting animals
• Special meaning
 People returned to them time after time over many generations
• Almost entirely inaccessible
o Creation more important than finished product
Skara Brae
neolithic settlement
Orkney Islands off scottland
3100-2600 BCE

compact cluster of dweelings linked together by covered passageways
excellence in ceramics
depends upon
1.) degree to which the given vessel combines domestic utility
2.) visual beauty
3.) fine execution
Horse and Sun Chariot
Trundlhom, Denmark

1800-1600 BCE

patterns on horse tend to be geometric and rectilinear but those on the sun disks are continuous and curvilinear, suggesting movement of the sun
SUMER
cities that developed along the rivers of southern mesopotamia between 3500- 2340 BCE

wagon wheel and plow, cast objects in copper and broze, created a system of writing and orgaized system of justice
Uruk
first independent sumerian city state

two large temple complexs
1 dedicated to Innana and 1 dedicated to Anu

White temple
Inanna
sumerian goddess of love and war
Anu
sumerian sky god
Ur
sumerian city

birthplace of Abraham
Nanna
moon god
stele of Naramsin
Akkad

commemorates a miliatry vicotry of Naramsin, Sargon's grandson
Enheduanna
AKKAD

daughter of Sargon I

combined the roles of princess, preistess, politican, poet, and prophet

considered the embodiment of goddess Ningal and wife of moon god Nanna
Votive Statue of Gudea
Lagash

Girsu

2120 BCE

emphasizes power centers

monumental
Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions
ASSYRIA

850 BCE

man is not part of anture, standing among animals as their equal but has assued dominion over nature