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### 42 Cards in this Set

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 What are the 5 respiratory volumes? Tidal Volume, Inspiratory Reserve Volume, Expiratory Reserve Volume, Vital Capacity, and Residual Volume. Define tidal volume. It's the volume of air that you breathe in or out in 1 normal resting breath. What is an average tidal volume? 500mL Define inspiratory reserve volume. It's the volume of air that one can forcefully inspire above and beyond the normal inspiration. (How much you can forcefully inhale AFTER a normal inhilation). What is the average inspiratory reserve volume for men? 3300mL Define the expiratory reserve volume. Volume of air one can forcefully exhale after a normal exhalation. About how much is the average expiratory reserve volume? 1000mL Define vital capacity. It's the total volume of air that you can move in or out of the lungs. (Breathe in as much as possible, then breathe out forcefully everything you can). What is the average vital capacity for ment and women? Men: 5500mL, Women:3500mL What is vital capacity made up of? The Tidal Volume+Inspiratory Reserve Volume+Expiratory Reserve Volume= Vital Capacity What is the residual volume? It's the little bit of air left in the lungs after the most forceful expiration. About how much air is in the residual volume? 1200mL Define Diffusion Movement of a substance from high concentration to low concentration. What is the term for concentration when talking about gas pressure? Partial Pressure How would you write partial pressure of Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury? pO2, pCO2, pHg What is the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level? 760 mmHg In the atmosphere, what percentage is oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide? Oxygen: 21% Nitrogen: 78% Carbon Dioxide: <1% How do you find the partial pressure of oxygen at standard atmospheric pressure? 760 x (20%)= 159 mmHg or 760 x (.20)= 159 mmHg If you were to add all of the partial pressures what would the total be? 760 What is the partial pressure of Nitrogen? 760 x (78% or .78)= 592.8 mmHg Does the partial pressure stay the same when the gases are inhaled? No, they mix with the stale air in the passageways and it dilutes it so that the partial pressure decreases a bit. If the pressure in the alveolus is 104 mmHg, and the pressure in the capillary is 40 mmHg, the gas will do what? The gas will go from the alveolus to the capillary Do gases move from high to low partial pressure or low to high? From high to low. How is oxygen transported through the blood? It attaches to the iron on the hemaglobins of the red blood cells. What percentage of oxygen is transported through the blood via hemaglobins? 97% What is done with the remainder? The remainding 3% of oxygen dissolved in the blood. Where is CO2 produced? In cells. What is the chemical equation that makes Carbon Dioxide? Glucose + O2--->36 ATP + CO2 + H2O Is the parital pressure of CO2 (pCO2) high or low in cells, why is this vital? It is high in cells, and low in the blood, so it diffuses into the blood and travels to the heart, then to the lungs where it is exhaled. What three ways is carbon dioxide transported through the blood? A small amount is dissolved in the blood (7%), A small amount attaches to globing of hemaglobing (30%), 63% is chemically changed into something else (it undergoes a reaction with water). What is H2CO3 called? Carbonic Acid Is carbonic acid stable? No, it breaks down into a bicarbonate ion. The carbon dioxide travels in the ________. HCO3 (-) ion. How do we exhale CO2? Once it goes to the hear in HCO3, it also goes to the lungs, the chemical reaction reverses in the lungs because we can only breathe out CO2. What is the reversed chemical reaction? HCO3+H-->H2CO3-->H20+CO2 How do we control respiration (as part of homeostasis)? Through the Herring-Breuer reflex (which controls normal breathing), and the humoral control. Explain the humoral control. It states that O2, CO2, and H are important for controlling breathing, we have receptors for these chemicals, and they are monitored frequently, we change our breathing to keep the levels normal. Which chemical is the most important one according to the humoral control? CO2. What happens to the CO2 levels when we hold our breath? The CO2 level increases because we aren't exhaling it, yet we're still making it. Eventaully, the CO2 will build up too much and it forces you to breathe, (it's a very strong stimulus that we can't stop). Can someone die from holding their breath too long? No, because of the stimulus created by the large amounts of CO2. What happens if we hyperventilate? The CO2 levels in blood decrease because we're exhaling very fast and not making enough. If the level drops too much, a stimulus inhibits breathing and stops it, which stops the income of O2 too. Does breathing in a paperbag really help someone who is hyperventilating? Yes, because they are exhaling CO2 into the bag and then inhaling it in again, so the levels stay relatively normal.