Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Blood vessels are also known as what system?
The vascular system.
On average how many miles of blood vessels are in the human body?
60,000 miles
Are most of the vessels visible or microscopic?
If a person is to gain one pound of fat, they are gaining how many blood vessels to supply that fat?
1 extra mile
What are the 2 simultaneous cirulations?
1. Systemic Circulation
2. Pulmonary Circulation
What is the systemic circulation?
Starts in the left ventricle, goes to the aorta, and through the many small branches of the aorta (arteries), then they branch even smaller into "arterioles," then into even smaller vessele called capillaries.
The blood in the systemic circulation going away from the heart is ____________ blood.
Does the blood in the systemic circulation have high or low levels of oxygen?
High levels
After the blood enters the capillaries, what is the route of transportation?
Capillaries converge into larger vessels (venules), they converge into larger vessels (veins), and they empty into the vena cavas and then into the right atrium.
The blood in the systemic circulation that is going back to the heart is __________ blood.
Does venous blood have high or low amounts of oxygen?
Low amounts
What is the entire route of circulation (including valves and both circulation systems)?
RA->R AV valve-> pulm.valve->pulm. trunk->arteries->arterioles->capillaries->venules->pulm.veins->LA->L AV valve->LV->Aortic Valve->Aorta->arteries->arterioles->capillaries->venules->veins->vena cava->RA and over again.
The __________ __________ are the very first branches coming from the aorta.
Coronary Arteries
What makes blood flow in vessels?
The difference in pressure from beginning to end.
If the pressure is 100mmHg at each end of the vessel, will the blood flow?
No, there will be a resistance to flow because of the similarities in pressure.
_________ have the most peripheral resistance.
What is peripheral resistance?
Where we lose most of our pressure.
Walls of the arterioles have _______ muscle.
Smooth muscle can only ___________ and __________.
Contract, Relax
Arterioles either ________ or _________.
Dilate, Constrict
What are the 2 usages for arteriolse being able to dilate and constrict?
It is used to control the amount of blood that flows in any particular organ, and it's used to control blood pressure.
Is controlling the blood flow a local or foreign control of blood?
What is an example of controlling the blood flow?
Exercising, we have an increased need for oxygen (and blood).
Controlling the blood pressure is a _________ response.
When the arteriole constricts, the resistance __________, which results in a ________ flow of blood.
Increases, Greater
The pressure increase in the arterioles resulst in what?
The blood gets backed up and that increases the blood pressure.
What happens when someone's blood pressure is too high?
The arterioles dilate, allowing more blood to pass, the resistance decreases which causes a decrease in blood pressure too.
What are the 3 ways that arterioles are controlled?
Local control to increase the blood flow to an organ, by reflex control (for blood pressure), and via hormone control which involves the kidney.
What does hormone control do with the arterioles?
When it detects a low blood pressure, the kidney makes an enzyme that releases into the blood which increases blood pressure.
What is the enzyme that the kidneys make to reduce blood pressure?
What is angiotensinogen?
It's an inactive protein in blood. Renin activates it.
After renin activates angiotensinogen, what is it called?
Angiotensin I
What happens to angiotensin I?
It gets converted to angiotensin II by ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme).
What does angiotensin II do?
It constricts arterioles which causes peripheral resistance to increase, which increases the blood pressure.
What is so special about capillaries?
They are the only place in the circulatory tree where diffusion can take place.
Why can diffusion take place in only the capillaries?
Because the walls are very thin and have no smooth muscle or elastic tissue.
What type of cells are capillaries?
Simple Squamous Epithelium
What are the smallest vessels?
About how many vessels are in the body? How many are capillaries?
There are 60,000 miles of vessels, most of which are capillaries.
What do veins do?
They carry blood back to the heart.
What is a problem with veins that are far from the heart, like in the feet?
The blood has a hard time getting back to the heart because the pressure difference isn't very big.
What 2 things help blood get to the heart from the feet?
The bicuspid valves in the beins, and the contractions of the skeletal muscles.
How do the bicuspid valves help get blood to the heart from the legs?
They are at regular intervals through the vessles, and they don't allow blood to flow backwards.
How does the contractions of skeletal muscles get blood to the heart from the legs?
By contracting, we put pressure on the veins and it helps push blood up.
What is the overall function of the respiratory system?
To exchange O2 and CO2 between the body and the air.
What 4 processes are involved in respiration?
1) Must get air into lungs and back out again.
2) Diffuse O2 from lungs into blood, diffuse CO2 from blood into lungs.
3) Transport O2 through the blood, transport CO2 through the blood.
$) Difuse O2 from the blood to the cells, diffuse CO2 from the cells to the blood.
Where does diffusion take place?
In the capillaries.
What are the parts (anatomy) of the respiratory system?
The nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and the trachea's branches.
What is the pharynx?
The back of the thrat.
What is the nasopharynx related to?
The nose.
What is the oropharnyx related to?
The mouth.
What is the larnyx?
The adams apple that the air travles through. It is constructed of hyalin cartilage. It's rigin and hollow in center.
The cartilage does what in the larynx?
Keeps the hollow passageway open.
Where are the vocal cords?
In the larynx.
What's the trachea?
A tube with c-shaped cartilage on it at regular intervals. They also keep it open.
Does the trachea branch?
Yes, into 2 branches.
Where does the trachia's 2 branches go?
One goes to each lung.
How many lobes does the right lung have?
How many lobes does the left lung have?
The first branches off the trachea are called what?
Primary bronchi (1 with a degree sign).
The primary bronchi branch too, where and how many are there?
They branch into each lobe, so right has 3 branches, left has 2 branches.
The 2nd branches off the trachea are called what?
Secondary branches, or 2 with a degree sign.
What keeps these branches open?
What is bronchitis?
inflammation of the bronchi.
What is a bronchiole?
A small branch of roughly 1mm or less in diameter.
What's a terminal bronchiole?
Branches into respiratory bronchioles.
About how many alveoli are in one human lung?
Roughly 300 million.
Alveoli have very thin walls and are covered by what?
What is so special about capillaries?
They are the only place where diffusion can happen.
What is the only part of the respiratory tree where diffusion can occur?
In the alveoli, because the walls are thin.
_____ diffuses into the capillaries, ______ diffuses into the alveoli.
O2, CO2
Each lung is covered by a double membrane called the what?
What are the two parts of the pleura?
The visceral pleura (lies right on the surface of the lung), and the parietal pleura (lines the inside of the chest cavity).
What is the space between the two membranes called?
Intrapleural Space
What is in the intrapleural space?
A small amount of fluid lubrication.
What two things tend to cause the lungs to collapse?
1. The elasticity of the lungs.
2. Surface tension of the thin film of fluid around the alvioli.
How do we stop the lungs from collapsing?
The negative pressure in the intrapleural space helps with the elasticity problem, and the chemical "surfactor" which destroys surface tension.
About when does a fetus create the chemical surfactor?
Between 28 and 32 weeks of development.
What if the baby is born prematurely and has not yet made the surfactor?
They can't breathe on their own so they are given a surfactant spray into their respiratory system.
What are some other words for breathing in?
Inhilation, Inspiration
Is inhilation an active or passive provess?
What 2 things happens when we inhale?
The diaphragm contracts (and flattens), which enlarges the volume of the thoracic cavity, and then the intercostal muscles contract too which causes the ribcage to go up and out a little, which causes the lungs to expand due to the negative pressure on the chest walls. This draws air in.
Is exhalation or expiration an active or passive process?
What happens when we exhale?
We stop contracting diaphragm and intercostals, chest returns to resting size, lungs return to normal size and this pushes air out.
The whole inhalation-exhilation process is controlled by a reflex called:
The Herring-Breuer Reflex
Where are the stretch receptors in this reflex?
All over the pleura.
When we inhale, what happens to the stretch receptors?
They stretch and send signals to CNS which send signals to the respiratory center which send signals to muscles (effectors) and the diaphragm and intercostals tell relax and cause an exhale. Then it goes again.
What happens when you get the "wind knocked out of yourself?"
It causes a forced exhale and stuns the stretch receptors so we can't inhale for a bit.
Stretch receptors tell us to do what?
To relax muscles.