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75 Cards in this Set

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What does a heart beat sound like?
"Lub-Dub"
The low-pitched "Lub" is caused by what?
It's associated with the closing of the Atrioventricular valves at the beginning of systole.
What is the higher pitched "Dub" sound caused by?
It's associated with the closing of the artery valves at the beginning of diastole.
A heart murmur is caused by what?
A defective valve, this causes some blood to "backflow"
Can a heart murmur be fixed if serious?
Yes, they can put in an artifical valve, or a pig valve.
In a heart murmur, will both the lub and the dub sound messed up?
No, just the dub, because it's artery vavles are defective and those make the dub noise.
What is an electrocardiogram (EKG/ECG)?
It's a procedure that measures the electrical activity of the heart, it measure various depolarizations (which cause contractions) and repolarizations.
How does someone get an EKG/ECG?
Medical professionals place electrods (leads) on various spots of the body.
Where can leads for an EKG be placed?
Some can be put on the chest, some can be on both wrists and one ankle.
EKG/ECG's record between any two ______________.
Electrods.
What is one cycle of heart function on a EKG reading?
P,QRS, T.
What is a PQ interval and what is it used for?
It's the distance between P&Q on an EKG. If this distance is longer than normal than the person may have something wrong with their conduction system.
An EKG is measuring what?
The action potential going through the atrioventricular node, the atrioventricular bundle, the bundle branches, purkinje fibers, and to the ventricles.
What supplies the heart with oxygen and nutrients?
The coronary arteries.
Do the coronary arteries branch or not?
yes, they branch to supply every part of the heart with oxygen and nutrients.
Do coronary arteries ever clog up?
Yes
What clogs up coronary arteries usually?
Fat deposits inside the arteries. They accumulate and the artery gets narrow so that not enough blood can pass through them.
A Partial Blockage is what?
It happens during exercising, the heart rate goes up because the muscles need more oxygen.
If someone is not getting enough oxygen, and they experience chest pain, what would the doctor call that pain?
Angina Pectoris.
Define complete blockage.
The coronary artery is completely blocked and no oxygen is able to pass into the heart muscle cells, the particular cells that have no oxygen will die.
What is a myocardial infarction (MI)?
Medical term for a heart attack, it happens with a complete blockage.
What does the severity of a MI depend on?
How far down the clot is coronary artery. Anything past the clot dies.
Can a clot in the coronary artery be fixed?
Yes, they can thread a tube into an artery from the leg, go up into the heart and vacuum the clot out, or they can put a tube in, blow up a small balloon near the clot, and place a stent into the artery to keep it open, or they can take a vein from the leg and put it into the heart and skip over the clot and create a second route of transportation for the blood.
How early does build up of fat deposits occur?
10 years old in some cases.
What 2 major things affect the level of fat in blood vessels?
Genetics and Diet.
What is the stroke volume?
SV- the volume of blood pumped out of one ventricle in one beat/contraction.
What is the average stroke volume?
70 mL.
What is cardiac output?
The volume of blood pumped out of one ventricle in one minute.
How does one find the cardiac output?
It is stroke volume, multiplied by the heart rate.
If someone's stroke volume was 70mL and their heart rate was 70, what would their cardiac output be?
4900mL rounded up to 5L.
What is the venous return?
The blood returning to the heart in one minute (this should be equal to the cardiac output).
What is the End Diastolic Volume (EDV)?
The volume of blood in one ventricle at the end of diastole (relaxation of ventricles).
What is the average End Diastolic Volume?
120mL
What is the End Systolic Volume (ESV)?
The volume of blood in one ventricle at the end of systole (ventricular contraction).
How would one find the End Systolic Volume?
Subtract the stroke volume from the end diastolic volume.
If someone's stroke volume was 70 and their end diastolic volume was 120, what would their end systolic volume be?
120-70= 50mL
How do we regulate the heart's activity?
We don't, it's all automatic, it's a part of homeostasis.
What are the two ways that the heart activity is managed?
Through an intrinsic method and through a reflex control.
What is the intrinsic method?
It is something built into the heart itself, if more blood comes into the heart, the heart stretches a little,causing Actin and Myosin to interact, this makes the heart contract with more force, and more blood is pushed out.
What is Frank-Starling's law?
"If more blood comes into the heart, then more blood is pumped out."
Can the heart stretch a lot, is there a limit?
Yes, the heart can only stretch so much.
What 3 things does the reflex control need?
Receptors, Central Nervous System, and an effector.
In the central nervous system in the medulla oblongata are two parts, what are they?
Cardioacceleration Center and the cardioinhibitory center.
The cardioacceleration center and cardioinhibitory center do what?
The send signals to the heart to either accelerate the beat or inhibit (slow) the beat.
If the cardioacceleration center is on, can the cardioinhibitort center be on too? Vice Versa?
No, if one is on, the other has to be off.
What happens in the cardioacceleration center if the heart rate is slow?
It sends signals through the effectors (Sinoatrial node and Muscle), at the SA node it makes sodium leak faster for more action potentials to occur, it causes an increase in heart rate and the heart pumps with more force, it is sending sympathetic signals.
What happens during cardioinhibitation when a heart rate is too fast?
The center sends a signal to the sinoatrial node only and this causes a slower leak of sodium, which slows the heart rate. This is sending parasympathetic signals, and it's going over the vegas nerve to the heart.
There are stretch receptors located where?
In the wall of the aorta and the walls of the carotid arteries and at the bifurcation.
What is a bifurcation?
When a vessel forks (like a fork in the road).
The reflex control controls __________ & ____________.
Blood pressure and heart rate.
Blood pressure is related to what?
Cardiac Output.
What if the heart rate increases?
The cardaic output increases and this causes the blood pressure to increase too.
If someone is hypertensive, what happens?
The stretch rece[tprs stretch, send signals to cardiac center's cardioacceleration and cardioinhibitory, the cardiohibitory is turned on, (other is turned off), it sends parasympathetic signals over the vegas nerve to the Sinoatrial node which results in a decreased heart rate which decreases cardiac output which decreases blood pressure.
If someone is hypotensive, what happens?
Stretch receptors do nothing, there are no signals sent to cardiac center, no inhibitor is turned on, so the accelerator automatically turns on, it sends a sympathetic signal which is sent to the SA node and heart muscle, it results in more force and increased stroke volume, cardiac output goes up and so does the blood pressure,
During fibrillation what happens?
There is no cardiac output which means no blood pressure, it's very dangerous.
Do heart volumes vary?
Yes, depending on the need for blood.
If the heart contracts, can the End Systolic Volume decrease?
Yes, it can decrease to around 10-30mL.
If more blood comes into the heart, than can the end diastolic volume increase?
Yes, it can increase to 200-250mL.
Calculate the new stroke volume if the end diastolic volume was 200 and the end systolic volume was 10.
200-10=190mL
If the heart rate is 100 beats per minute, calculate the cardiac output (Stroke Volume x Heart Rate)
190 x 100 = 19000mL or 19L
What is the normal cardiac output at rest?
5L
What is the pulse?
It's during systole when a 70mL glob of blood is pushed into the aorta and the aorta expands then recoils back to original position. This is one pulse.
Expansion and recoil happen all the way through all of the ________.
Arteries.
Pulse Rate is also known as the:
Heart Rate.
What is the best place to feel for a pulse?
On the carotid artery in the neck.
Where is the radial pulse?
In the wrist.
Where is the popliteal pulse?
Behind knee.
How did they USED to measure blood pressure?
By cutting the brachial artery and placing a mercury-filled tube inside it.
Define blood pressure.
The measurement of the pressure of the blood on the walls of the arteries.
What units is blood pressure measured in?
mmHg (millimeters of mercury).
How is the blood pressure written?
Systolic Pressure/Diastolic Pressure
What is the average blood pressure of an adult?
120/70
What equipment is needed to measure a blood pressure?
A Blood pressure cuff, a stethoscope, and a sphygomonometer.
When the cuff is wrapped around the arm and inflated, what happens to the brachial artery?
It is pinched off and blood can't get through.
After you pinch the brachial artery off during a blood pressure reading, what do you do next?
Place the stethoscope over the artery and slowly let air back into the cuff. As the artery opens blood will be able to flow through creating a bit of turbulence (which makes a thumping sound). When this sound is first heard, it is called the systolic pressure, when it is last heard it's the diastolic pressure.