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200 Cards in this Set

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How does the body respond to higher than normal blood levels of carbon dioxide?
Ventilation is increased to remove excess carbon dioxide.
Which vein has the largest cross sectional area?
Brachiocephalic
Which cause expiration during normal quiet breathing
passive recoil of the lungs and chest wall
Which is an example of catabolc chemical reaction
Glycogen conversion to glucose
Which blood group will have its erythrocytes aggluntinated by either Type A plasma or type B plasma
Type AB
Non-digestible substances move through the secretions of the colon in what order
ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
which is an effect of increased venous return
increase in end diastolic volume EDV
a lose of function of gastric chief cells would result in a decreased ability to digest which substance
protein
an elevation of which factor will increase the affinity of hemoglobin 02
pH
which action best reduces peripheral resistance in blood vessels
increasing the diameter of the arterioles
how does the heart react to excessive potassium in the blood
the heart stops
which event occurs first after the P wave
contraction of the atria
which process occurs in a patient with falling blood glucose levels
glycogenolysis
the inferiour region of the stomach communicates with the duodenum of the small intestines by which structure
pyloric sphincter
anemia is a disorder of which blood element
erythrocytes
Which reaction is a form of hydrolysis?
Formation of glucose from glycogen
What is involved in chemical digestion?
The addition of water to molecular bonds.
Which hormone stimulates ejection of bile from the gallbladders?
Cholecystokinin
Which is the function of surfactin produced by type 2 alveolar cells?
Surfactant reduces surface tension so that the alveoli can more easily expand during inspiration
A reduced level of which blood component will decrease the transport of cholesterol to tissue cells?
Lipoprotein
What result when blood pH decreases?
More oxygen is available to tissues
Where in the cardiovascular system is blood pressure usually the highest?
Renal artery.
What is the function of the SA (sino-atrial) node?
To set the pace of the heartbeat
What is the result of living in a high altitude?
Increased production of erythrocytes.
A major function of epatocytes is the formation and secretions of substance?
Bile
Which statement accurately describes the pressure in the alveolar during normal quiet respiration?
Alveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure during inspiration and greater than atmospheric on expiration
which is the normal response for the cardio-inhibitory center of the medulla oblongata?
Decrease heart rate at times of increased BP.
How do bile salts facilitate the digestion of fat?
By causing fat emulsification
Which action occurs following stimulation of the baro-receptors in the aortic arch?
The smooth muscles will relax.
Which phase of gastric activity control is inhibited by the entero-astric reflux?
Intestinal phase
Which stage of the cardiac cycle lasts longest?
Time the atrio-ventricular valves are open
Which is the first homeostatic event to occur following damage to n arteriole?
Arteriolar smooth muscles contract in ventricular spasm.
Which characteristic differentiates small arteries from large arteries?
Small arteries have proportionately more smooth muscle
which action reduces the rate of a chemical reaction?
Decreasing the temperature of the reaction
`Dehydration of the following will form a peptide bond?
Amino acids
Carbon usually has an atomic mass of 12, but some carbon has a mass of 14, which term best describes carbon 14?
An Isotope
Aqueous solutions are more easily formed if the solute is in what condition?
Polar
What property of water is most important for the property function in the human cells?
Water is a highly effective solvent
Which is the role of ionic calcium in the contraction of the skeletal muscle?
Ionic calcium or CA2+ loose tripomyosin from the myosin-binding site.
Sutures of the skull are examples of which kind of joint?
Fibrous synthrosis
What is a consequence of over production of hormones by the parathyroid gland?
Easily broken bones.
Which type of cell is responsible for secreting the matrix of bone?
Osteoblast
Which axial bones have transverse foramenia and bifid spinos process?
Cervical vertebrae
Which site is a location of blood vessels that nourish the cells of compact bone?
Havorshin canals
If muscle fibers obey the "all or none principle", how can skeletal muscles produce graded contractions?
Different numbers of muscle fiber can become stimulated.
Which action results when the lower extremity is moved away from the midline of the median plane?
Abduction
Which muscle extends the leg at the knee?
The rectus femoris
Which event coursed the irreversible cross linkage between actin & myosin filament during rigimortous?
The cessation ATP synthesis
Which pair of prime movers are antagonists?
Latisimus dorsi & pectoralis major
Which is the bodies energy source for a one-hundred mile bicycle race?
Aerobic metabolism
Which statement indicates normal water gain & loss on a normal daily basis?
Water gain tends to equal water loss.
Which process results in the least amount of water?
Defecation
What is the effect of hypoventilation on Ph of body fluids?
The Ph of body fluids fall due to increased concentrations of hydrogenation of ions.
Which cation is present in the highest concentration in intracellular fluid?
Potassium
Why must the Ph of blood be kept constant?
To maintain function of proteins.
Which statement best describes the homeostasis of blood glucose?
Insulin is needed to stimulate most cells in the body to increase uptake of glucose.
Which halves would be the direct result of a midsaggital section of the head midsagittal?
Right & left halves
Which transport mechanism is best adapted for moving a large hydrosolic molecule from outside a cell where it's concentration higher than that of inside of the cell?
Facilitated diffusion
Which statement best describes pseudo stratified columnar epithelium?
It lines most of the upper respiratory tract.
Which is the most superficial layer of the epidermis?
Stratum corneum the stratum corneum is the exposed outer surface of the skin
What is the functional role of the otoliths of the inner ear?
Perceiving head position relative to gravity, equilibrium
What is the non vascular transparent coat that covers the iris?
Cornea
A decreased sense of taste can result from injury to which cranial nerve?
The glossopharyngeal
Which is the result o a excitory-post synaptic potential?
Increased sodium ion permeability of cellular membranes
Which effect on sound waves results from the tympanic memory collecting vibrations and transmitting them to the oval window?
Amplification
After blood donation, which hormone will be most involved in maintaining blood pressure and replacing the lost blood volume?
Aldosterone
Which types of fibers are present in the sinothalmic nerve tract?
Somatic afferent
Which part of the brain produces releasing hormones that control the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
Hpyothalmus
Consumption of alcoholic beverages inhibits the secretion of which hormone?
Vasopressin (vasopressin is also known as an antidiuretic hormone
Which hormone can raise low blood glucose levels?
Glucogon
A secretion of an adrenocoricotropic hormone (ACTH) leads to which process?
Stimulation of adrenal cortex, causing a release of glucocorticoids
Damage to which part of the brain will result in resting tremor, reduced ability to initiate movements and decreased dopamine levels
Substancia negra (which is known as Parkinson's)
Which neuron synapse is an autonomic ganglion?
Two motor neurons
Which condition stimulates increased secretion of parathyroid hormone?
Decreased blood calcium.
A mother is unable to produce enough milk to nurse her newborn, which hormonal imbalanced is the cause?
Hyposecretion of prolactin
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) targets which organ to produce which action?
The kidneys to reabsorb water.
A lesion is present in the ventralspinothalmic tract of the spinal cord on the R side@ the 2nd cervical level. Which part of the body will be unable to distinguish touch & pressure
L side of the body, below the neck.
The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is secreted by which gland?
Pituitary
What occurs when the process of accommodation is required for near vision?
The ciliary muscles contract and the lenses are rounded.
Heroin relieves pain by mimicking the activity of which neurotransmitter?
Endorphins
Which circumstance is required for synapse to become excitatory?
Post synaptic membrane channels are open.
If several pre-synaptic neurons deliver an excitatory message to a post synaptic neuron at the same time, the combined effect may initiate an action potential. What term describes the process of forming an action potential in this way
Summation
When inadequate dietary intake of iodine results in significantly reduce blood hyperthyroxine levels, how do the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary respond. Thyrotropin releasing hormonds (TRH) levels in the blood
Increase in TSH or TSH levels increase
Which cells of he testes produce testosterone?
Interstitial cells
`During the process of oogenesis, when is miosis I completed
The puberty
When does the endometrium become thickest during the female reproductive cycle?
Late in the secretory phase
Reproduction, which hormone stimulates parturition?
Oxytocin
Which function is the main role of HCG during the first 3 months of pregnancy?
To stimulate the release of hormones from the corpus luteum
Which statement is the most descriptive of the corpus luteum
It is the ruptured follicle resulting following ovulation
Which structure is the major source of fruictose secretion used by sperm cells for energy?
Seminole vescicle
Which type of epithelium lines the urinary bladder?
The transitional
Which event stimulated the glomular filtration rate (GFR)?
Afferent arteriole vasodilatation
What happens if body fluids osmolarity exceeds normal levels?
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) release will increase
Why is glucose in the urine characteristic of untreated diabetes?
Elevated blood glucose exceeds the renal transport maximum tm leading to excessive glucose excretion
How is urine propelled from the kidneys to the urinary bladder when an individual is lying down?
Peristalsis in the uriter
Under which condition would a person experience a decreased production of ADH?
After drinking alcoholic beverages.
Which structures comprise the renal corpuscle?
Bowman's corpuscle and gomerulus
Urine is produced in the renal lobes, collects in renal palpuli, then is discharged into which part of the kidney?
The minor calyx
Which event is a result of increased renin production of the juxtaglomular apparatus?
Sodium reabsorption increase
If the spinal cord has been severed at the level of the waist with no other injury, what will the long-term effect be on microition?
Bladder will empty reflectively without voluntary control.
What is formed by the unequal sharing of electrons?
Polar molecules (Polar molecules by definition share electrons unequally)
What is a product of the reaction of an acid * a base?
A salt (a salt is a reaction of the product of an acid & a base)
What is the result of an enzymatic reaction?
A decrease in the energy of activation of chemical reactions (Enzyme lower the reaction of chemical reactions)
An enzyme binds which which reactant in order to act with that reactant?
Substrate (Enzymes will bind only with a highly specific substrate)
Which property describes an element that is found to be stable and reactive?
The elements balance shell is completely filled, (unreactive mean the outermost shell is filled, unreactive elements are inherently stable.
Which set of terms is most descriptive of smooth muscles?
Plasticity, dense bodies and involuntary
Which component of bones operates to reduce the brittleness of bones?
Collagen (Collagen fibers are strong & flexible)
Which statement correctly identifies the difference between cartilage & bone?
Cartilage is avascular and has no fibers, and bone is vascular and no collagen fibers.
Which features are unique to thoracic vertebrae?
Facets & demifacets (only these thoracic vertebrae have facets that provide ribs articulation)
If an individual had a disease that affected skeletal muscle tissue only, which function would be impaired?
Diaphragm contraction (diaphragm is a skeletal muscle)
During bone development, which process is responsible for ossification of most of the axial skeletal bones?
Primarily intramenbranous ossification (the bones along the longitudinal access of the body for example the skull and the clavicle form primarily by itramembtaous ossificaion
What is the function of the obturator foramen?
To allow passage of blood vessels and nerves to the lower extremities.
When a person sits on a chair with thighs together, the thighs are in which position?
Flexed & abducted
Which activity is the functional role of calcium (CA2+) in muscle contractions?
changing the concentration of troponins. Calcium causes troponins to change it's shape and cause the contraction cycle)
Which condition causes a muscle cramp?
Changes in membrane permeability (muscle fibers require optimum permeability to cause muscles to function properly, changes in permeability specifically thoe leading to electrolyte permeability can cause cramps)
which muscle is located in the posterior compartment of the lower leg?
Gsstrocnemisis (the gastrocnemisis is posterior compartment of the lower leg)
Which bony landmarks are used to measure the combined lengths of the femur * the tibia to determine the length of the leg?
The anterior inferior iliac spine to the lateral malleolus of the fibula
Which factor will contribute to the formation of edema?
Lowered blood proteins (general edema can result from reduced protein concentration, for example malnutrition, starvation of liver desease)
What action can help an arteriole ph of the blood into a normal range?
Breathing rapidly and deeply
Which physiological condition is present in an individual who had diabetes and a blood ph of 7.1?
Acidosis
Which most efficiently buffers plasma acids?
Bicarbonate buffer (Bicarbonate is active in both intracellular fluid and extra cellular fluid and is the most important in buffering plasma acids)
Which observation best reflects the ionic status of extracellular fluid?
Sodium concentration far exceeds potassium concentration.
Which occurrence would directly increase systemic arteriole pressure?
Increase in peripheral resistance
Why is aspirin an antithrombic agent?
It blocks the synthesis of thromboxane
Which structure on the CNS contains the neurons that fire arrythmically to control inspiration & expiration?
Medulla oblongata
Why is there normally no backflow of blood during cardiac contractions?
The blood pressure in the ventricle and the aorta caused the valve to close.
During which phase of the cardiac cycle is the blood pressure the lowest?
During rapid ventricular filling
What causes the rate & depth of ventilation to increase?
an increase of the partial pressure of the CO2 in blood.
What most directly stimulates respiration?
CO2
During aerobic respiration, glucose is oxidized yielding adensone triosphate (ATP), what other compounds are also produced?
CO2 & water (aerobic respiration produces ATP, CO2 & H2O)
How does the entry of fatty chyme into the small intestine turn the release of bile into the intestines?
Fatty chyme causes the intestine to secrete cholycistokininn (CCK) which stimulate the small intestine to release bile
Where does the transfer of oxygen to the blood occur?
Alveoli
If the connection of the vagus nerve and the heart were severed, how would the heart rate be affected?
The heart rate would increase (the vagus nerve is the baroreceptor of that monitors pressure changes in the blood vessel walls, without it the heart rate would increase.)
Which vitamin is considered to be toxic if taken in excess?
Retinal (A) (an excess in Vit A causes liver damage, nausea, anorexia & skin deterioration. Retinal (A) is fat suluable as are vitamins that have a toxic affects.
Where do the renal arteries originate?
Abdominal aorta
A woman has Rh neg blood, her first child is born with Rh+ blood and her second child is born with Rh- blood. Who will receive the RhD immune globulin of Rhgam treatment for hemolytic disease of the newborne?
The mother fol owing each birth. (Treating the mother after each birth will protect future children from hemolytic disease of the newborn)
Gastrincholysistokinin (GCK) & secretin are what type of chemical substance?
Hormones
Obstruction of the common bile duct would interfere with which substance?
Lipids (bile salts are critical to lipid digestion)
What are the 4 layers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract starting from the lumen to the outside?
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis & serosa
Which blood vessel has the lowest blood pressure?
Ulner vein (veins generally have lower pressure than arteries)
Which factors prevent the lungs from collapsing?
Surfactant in the alveoli and negative plural pressure
The appendix is attached to which structure?
The Cecum
Manual stimulation of the baroreceptors of the carotid sinuses, by massaging the neck over the carotid sinuses would have which effect?
The BP & heart rate would drop
Which plasma protein plays an essential role in blood coagulation?
Fibrinogen (Fibrinogen (fiberI) is the chief protein in the clotting factor)
Which action occurs during swallowing?
The tongue closes the oropharynx
Which condition promotes the process of eryhropoiesis?
Hypoxia
A high fat meal would cause an increase in which substance in the blood?
Cholecystokinin (CKK)
Which nutrient would be hampered if the liver were severely damaged?
Lipids
Which statement best describes the short-term physiological responses of the carotid sinuses baroreceptor reflex that occur after a sudden increase in arteriole BP?
The number of carotid sinus impulses increases followed by the peripheral vasodilatation and decreased cardiac output.
Which statement best describes the Frank Starling principle?
An increased preload leads to an increased stroke volume.
If a person with high BP has an elevated afterload, what is most likely to occur?
The end systolic volume will increase. (The greater the afterload the greater the end systolic volume)
Which heart chamber receives oxygenated blood from the lungs?
The left atrium
What process inhibits the intestinal phase of gastric secretion?
Enterogastric reflux
Which heart valve is located between the L atrium and the L ventricle?
The mitral (also known an the LAV valve, the tricuspid is the RAV valve)
Which condition leads to the decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood?
The lack of intrinsic factor (lack of intrinsic factor leads to pernicious anemia a condition where red blood cell growth is inhibited and this oxygen carrying capacity remains low.)
Which physiological process is regulated by the positive feedback mechanism?
Blood clotting
Which is the result of a red blood cell being placed in a 20% solution of Nacl, the red blood cell will?
Lose water and shrink as water enters the hypertonic saline solution. (Exposure to a 20% solution would cause the cell to dehydrate)
Which provides a barrier that restricts the movement of proteins and other large molecules from the underlying connective tisue into the epithelium?
The basal lamina
Where is the medialstinum located?
Between the lungs
What is the result of the destruction of a cells ribosomes?
Inability to synthesize proteins. (protein synthesis is the primary function of the robosome.)
What part of the brain relays visual & hearing information?
Copora quadrigemina (visual and hearing information are specifically processed in the corpora quadrigemina, which is a part of the mid-brain.
Loss of calcium from the bone matrix occurs with hyperactivity with which gland?
The parathyroid
The anterior-pituitary lobe secretes which protein?
Thyroid stimulating protein (the thyroid stimulation protein is one of 7 hormones secreted by the anteriorpitutary lobe.)
Which cell type could serve as an example of convergence?
M magnocell (M or magnocells are located in the rods of the retina, they are large and have a great deal of convergence)
A neurotransmitter has opened chemically gated channels leading to an excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP), what ions will now diffuse down their concentrated gradient more rapidly?
Sodium
which statement about the thymus gland is accurate?
It is the site of lymphocyte differentiate ( T lymphocytes mature and differentiate in the thymus)
If a 1st order neuron in the sensory pathway carry fine touch sensation, has its cell body in the R dorsal route ganglion, in what location will this neuron synapse witha 2nd order neuron?
The situation described occurs in the posterior column pathway where 1st order neurons carrying sensations from the inferior half of the gody synapse in themedulla oblongat with 2nd ordr neurons.
Which area of the brain is responsible for vision?
Occipital
What causes elevated levels of vasopressor?
Increased BP
Which behavior would be adversely affected by damage to the Warnicke's area?
The perception of language
Which neuron parts reside in the anterior great horns of the spinal cord?
The cell bodies of preganglionicpayasympathetic neurons. (These great horns house these cell bodies that are part of the CNS)
How does the hypophysealportalsystem (HCS)connect to the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland?
HCS directly connects the median eminence to the pars distelous via hypothalamic-hypophiseal vein.
Which condition would lead to increased aldosterone secretion?
Decreased blood sodium
Which statement describes the effect 2 different hormones acting on the same organ?
Glucocorticoids and epinephrine cause adipose tissue to increase lipogenesis
Which function would be affected by blockade of the parasympathetic nervous system?
Pupil constriction
Why do people in colored photographs taken by a flash camera often have red eyes?
The structures within the eye absorb fewer red wavelengths than other colored wavelengths.
What is most likely to occur in a person deficient in Vit A?
Rhodopsin reserves are exhausted
Damage to some types of mylinated nerve fibers can often be repaired if which part o the nerve remains intact?
The cell body
Which ion floods into a neuron to initiate an action potential?
Sodium
What purpose is served by neuroglial tissue?
It's cells intertwine to form a supporting & protective framework throughout the brain & spinal cord.(the chief function of neuroglial tissue is to support & protect the brain & spinal cord.)
Which would occur if adenalatecyclase were inhibited?
The response to ADH (antidiuretic hormones) would be inhibited. (adenalatecyclase makes cAMP, which stimulates ADH production. Inhabition of one would inhibit the other.
In light refraction, where is the local focal point located?
Where light rays cross anterior to the retina.
Which structures contain the hair cells that are stimulated when an individual who whirling becomes dizzy?
Semi-circular ducts
Which hormone will predict when ovulation will recur?
The lutenizing (LH) Hormone
Which condition causes an autoimmune response to ones own sperm?
Developing sperm are isolated from the bloodstream by tight conjunctions of the sustintacular cells
Which function is performed by the interstitial cells of ley dig?
Testosterone secretion
What cells are released @ ovulation?
A secondary oocyte & 1 polar body
Which layer of the uterus is shed during the menstral cycle?
Functional zone
which reproductive structure is unpaired?
The prostate gland
During the process of oogenesis, when is meiosis II completed?
At fertilization
what will the urine of a person who is fasting likely contain?
Ketone bodies
Which solute comprises the majority of nitrogen contain material in the urine?
Urea
Which response is stimulated by the alcohol in several glasses of beer acting on anti diuretic hormone (ADH)?
Frequency of urination
How is the micturition reflex initiated?
By stretch receptors in the bladder wall (stretch receptors in the bladder wall stimulate parasympathetic motor neurons that trigger the micuration reflex)
Blood present in the capillary bed of the glumerilous exits via which vessel?
The efferent arteriole (the correct sequence of blood flow within the nephron is: Afferent arterioles, glomerialus, efferent arterioles, paratubular cpillaries and vendules.)
How can glumarilar filtration be reduced?
Reduce the diameter of the afferent arteriole
If urine formation is normal, but no urine enters the bladder, where is there likely to be an obstruction
The ureter
Which part of the nephron increases its permeability to water in the presence of antidiuretic hormone or ADH?
The collecting duct
Which cells from the maculladensa of the juxtaglomerialur apparatus?
Modified distal tubular cells
Whee is the largest percentage of filtered water re-absorbed?
In the proximal convoluted tubule