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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
all organisms are composed of...
cells and cell products
the cell is the simplest...
structural an functional unit of life.
an organism's structure and all of its funcitons are due to...
the activities of its cells.
all cells come only from...
pre-existing cells, not from nonliving matter.
because of common ancestry, cells of all species have many fundamental similarities in their..
chemical and metabolic mechanisms.
squamous cells are....

cuboidal cells are...

columnar cells are...
flat and thin.

cube-shaped.

column shaped.
the membrane lipids are...
the phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids.
phospholipids are
oriented with the hydrophilic phosphate-containing heads out and the hydrophobic fatty acid tails to the inside
cholesterol is..
a component of the plasma membrane and lends stability to the membrane.
glycolipids (lipids that have a carbohydrae attached) appear only...
on the exterior of the membrane.
membrane proteins...
can span or cross the membrane (integral or transmembrane proteins) or lie on one side of the membrane (peripheral proteins)
glycocalyx..
consists of carbohydrates attached to membrane lipids (glycolipids) and membrane proteins (glycoproteins)
microvilli...
are fingerlike extensions
cilia...
are hair like extensions
flagella...
is a long, whiplike structure.
nucleus
houses the DNA
rough endoplasmic reticulum
is the site of protein synthesis
ribosomes
read instructions for protein synthesis
golgi complex
receives proteins from rough endoplasmic reticulum, modifies them and package them
lysosome
is package of hydrolytic enzymes that digest things
peroxisome
detoxifies alcohol and other drugs and neutralizes free radicals
mitchondria
is the site of ATP production
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
detoxifies drugs and alcohol
centrioles
function in cell division
cytoskeleton
is a collection of protein filaments and cylinders that helps support the cell, organize and moves its contents, and helps the whole cell move.
three things in the cytoskeleton
microfilaments
intermediate filaments
microtubule
cytoplasm
is the contents of a cell between its plasma membrane and its nuclear envelope, consisting of cytosol, organelles, inclusions, and the cytoskeleton.
passive mechanisms
filtration
simple diffusion
osmosis
faciliated diffusion
filtration
is the process whereby particles are driven through the selectively permeable membrane of the cell by hydrostatic pressure.
simple diffusion
involves the movement of particles from an area of greater concentration to one of lesser concentration.
osmosis
is a special case of diffusion involving water movement from an area of greater water concentration to an area of lesser water concentration
tonicity
is the ability of a solution to affect fluid volume and pressure within a cell
hypotonic solutions are
more dilute (less solutes) than intracellular fluid
hypertonic solutions are
more concentrated (more solutes than intracellujlar fluid)
isotonic solutions
contain the same quantities of solute as intracellular fluid.
faciliated diffusion
is the movement of a solute down a concentration gradient with the help of a carrier protein
active transport
uses energy to move soltues up their concentration gradients (from area of lesser concentration to area of greater concentration)
how many steps in active transport and what are they?
four...
1 solute binds to carrier
2 carrier hydrolyzes ATP
3 carrier undergoes conformation change
4 carrier releases ligand on other side of membrane and returns to original shape
symport system can
move more than one solute in the same direction at the same time.
antiport system
transports two solutes in opposite directions (example is the sodium potassium pump).
exocytosis is
the expulsion of material from the cell
endocytosis is
the movement of material into the cell.
phagocytosis is
the process of "cell eating"
pinocytosis is
cell drinking
histones
serves spools that protect and organize the DNA
nucleic acids are
composed of monomers called nucleotides
each nucleotides is compsoed of
a monosaccharide, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
nitrogenous bases are found in
nucleic acids
pyrimidine bases
cytosine, thymine, and uracil
purine bases
adenine and guanine
DNA structure
it is a double stranded molecule ,
the monosaccharide (deoxyribose),
and the bases form paris according to the law of complimentary base pairing;
DNA contains the bases
adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine; adenine always paris with thymine; guanine always pairs with cytosin.
DNA function
serves as a code for the structure of the proteins produced within the cell;
a gene is sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a specific protein(s).
RNA structure, function and types:

Structure..
it is a single stran of nucleotides, with the base uracil instead of thymine and with the sugar ribose
RNA structure, function and types:

3 types.. and explain each..
1. messenger RNA (mRNA) copies the DNA stran and carries it to the cytoplasm to a ribosome.
2. transfer RNA (tRNA) delivers the correct amino acid to the ribosome.
3. ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a component of the ribosome.
genetic code
is the system in which four nucleotides (nitrogenous bases) code for the amino acid sequences of all proteins.
transcription
is the process whereby mRNA makes a copy of the DNA with the aid of RNA polymerase (an enzyme)
translation
is the process whereby the message in the mRNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids that will comprise a protein
DNA replication
is a semi-conservative process in which a copy of the DNA molecule is produced (DNA to DNA)
mutations are
any changes that occur in the DNA structure; mutations can have no effect or serious effects
cell cycle (interphase)
period of activity before a cell undergoes mitosis
types of cell division
mitosis and meiosis
mitosis
occurs in somatic cells (all cells of body except sex cells)

produces new cell (daughter) that have the same number of chromosomes as the original cell (parent0
prophase
chromatin condenses into chromosomes that are duplicated DNA (sister chromatids) held together at the centromere; nuclear envelope disappears
metaphase
chromosomes aligned at equator of cell
anaphase
centromere is pulled apart, and daughter chromosomes are pulled toward opposite poles of cell
telophase
nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomesp; and cytokinesis occurs (a cleavage furrow forms between the two nucleuses)
*two cells with the same number of chromosomes are produced form one cell
meiosis
occurs in sex cells and reduces the chromosome number by 1/2
phases of meiosis II
are identical to the phases of mitosis; results in 4 cells with 1/2 chromosome number
cancer
is abnormal cell growth; may be benign or malignant;
cancer
malignant growths are
deadly because they tend to metastasize (spread)
cancer carcinogens are
substances that cause cancer


Mom note: one of those substances is cigarettes!!!
heredity
is the transmission of genetic traits from one generation to the next
karyotype
is a chart of the chromosomes
genes
the actual genes make up their genotype
outward expression of the genes is
the phenotype