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79 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
List the four main types of tissues found in the body
epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
large phagocytic connective tissue cell taht functions in immune responses; name given to a monocyte after it leaves the blood and enters tissues
Describe the structure and location of simple cuboidal epithelial tissue
Single layer of cuboidal cells located in the ovaries, thyroid gland, kidney tubules, pancreas, and salivary glands
serous membranes
epithelial membranes; line the closed body cavities and cover the organs within those cavities; secrete a serous fluid between the parietal and visceral layers
Describe the structure, location, and function of simple squamos epithelial tissue
Single layer of thin, flat cells located in the alveoli of the lungs, capillry walls, and kidneys; well suited for diffusion and filtration
rounded or conical surface of one bone fits into a ring of bone or tendon; rotation; joint betweent he atlas and axis, proximal radioulnar joint
flat or slightly curved surfaces are moving against each other; sliding or twisting without circular movement; bewteen the carpals in the wrist and between the tarsals in the ankle
summary of blood connective tissue
liquid matrix called plasma with erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets suspended in it; transports oxygen, protects against disease, functions in the clotting mechanism; blood vessels and heart
identify the general structural features of vertebrae
thick anterior, weight-bearing portion is the body or centrum; posterior curved portion is the vertebral arch; vertebral arch and body surround a central large opening, the vertebral foramen; transverse processes project laterally from teh vertebral arch, and in the posterior midline there is a spinous process
Summary of dense fibrous connective tissues
matrix filled ith parallel bundles of collagenous fibers; binds structures together; tendons and ligaments
mature bone cell
compare cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacaral, and coccygeal vertebrae; state the number of each type
7 cervical: have transverse foramina and spinous processes are forked or bifid; 12 thoracic: have facets located on the bodies and transverse processes for articulation with ribs; 5 lumbar: large, heavy bodies & short, blunt spinous processes; Sacrum: five sacral vertebrae (child) fuse into one sacrum (adult); Coccyx: tailbone (3-5 coccygeal vert. fuse into one coccyx)
synovial membranes
connective tissue membranes that line joint cavities and secrete synovial fluid for lubrication
summary of hyaline cartilage connective tissue
solid matrix with fibers and scattered cells; chondrocytes located in lacunae; supports protects, provides a framework; ends of long bones, connects ribs to sternum, tracheal rings, fetal skeleton
summary of skeletal muscle tissue
attached to bones; produces body movement; cylindrical cell shape; many peripherally located nuclei; striations; voluntary control
Describe the structure and location of pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissue
Single layer of uneven columnar cells; often contains cilia and goblet cells; found in respiratory tract, and tubes of reproductive system
identify the structural features of the ribs and the sternum
the sternum forms the anterior portion of the thoracic cage; consists of the manubrium, body, and xiphoid process; there are 7 pair of vertebrosternal (true) ribs; 3 pairs of vertebrochondral ribs reach sternum indirectly (false); 2 pairs of vertebral, or floating, ribs (also false)
describe the general characteristics of connective tissues
have an abundance of intercellular matrix with relatively few cells; are able to reproduce
discuss three factors that influence skin color
basic skin color is due to the dark pigment melanin produced by the melanocytes in the stratum basale of the epidermis; activity of the melanocytes is genetically controlled; a large number of melanin granules results in dark skin, fewer granules: lighter skin
Name the supporting layer of the skin and describe it's structure
Subcutaneous layer; aka hypodermis or superficial fascia; anchors the skin to underlying organs; consists largely of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue; adipose tissue acts as a cushion and as a heat insulator and can be used as an energy source
Summary of fibrocartilage connective tissue
numerous collagenous fibers in matrix; cushions and protects; intervertebral disks, pads in knee joint, pad between two pubic bones
summary of osseous (bone) connective tissue
hard matrix with mineral salts; matrix arranged in lamellae around haversian canal; osteocytes in lacunae; protects, supports, provides framework; bones of the skeleton
supporting cells of nervous tissue; cells in nervous tissue that do not conduct impulses
Describe the structure, function, and location of transitional epithelial tissue
Specialized for stretching; several layers that decrease in number and cells that become thinner when distended; located in the urinary bladder
identify the features of the pelvic girdle
2 ossa coxae, or innominate bones, form the pelvic girdle; each os coxae is formed byt he ilium, ischium, and pubis, which meet and fuse in the acetabulum; they meet anteriorly at the sympysis pubis; flase pelvis: region between flared portions of the ilium bones; true pelvis: region below the pelvic brim
Description and and example of merocrine secretion mode
fluid released through cell membrane; no cytoplasm lost: salivary glands, pancreatic glands, certain sweat glands
collagenous fibers
composed fo the protein collagen; are strong and flexible but are only slightly elastic; also called white fibers
Mucous membranes
epithelial membrane; secrete mucus and line body cavities that open to the exterior
distinguish betweent the axial and appendicular skeletons and state the number of bones in each
the 80 bones of the axial skeleton form the vertical axis of the body; the appendicular skeleton consists of 126 bones and includes the free appendages and their attachments to the axial skeleton
arrector pili
a bundle of smooth muscle cells associated with hair that contract in response to cold and fear; gives you "goose bumps"
describe the structure of the two layers of the skin
epidermis: stratified squamous epithelium; in thick skin there are five distinct regions, but in theinner regions there are only four layers; outer layer of skin dermis: thicker than the epidermis, is connective tissue with hairs, nails, glands, fibers, sense receptors, blood vessels, and nerves embedded in it
articulating surfaces of both bones have concave and convex regions; shapes of the two bones complementary to each other; permits wide range of movement; carpometacarpal joint of the thumb is the only saddle joint in the body
nerve cell, including its processes; conducting cell of nervous tissue
bone forming cell
describe the structure of nails and their relationship to the skin
Nails are thin plates of keratinized stratum corneum. They are derived from the stratum basale in the nail bed.
C1 vertebrae, has no body, no spinous process, and short transverse processe
summary of adipose connective tissues
cells are filled with fat droplets so taht nucleus and cytoplasm are pushed to the periphery; little intercellular matrix; cushions, insulates, sores energy; beneath the skin, around the kidneys, heart, eyeballs
epiphyseal plate
the cartilaginous plate between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a bone; responsible for the lengthwise growth of a long bone
Describe the structure, function, and location of stratified squamous epithelial tissue
Several layers with flat cells at the free surface located in skin, mouth, vagina, and anus; primary function is protection
convex projection of one bone fits into concave depression in another; permits flexion and extension only; elbow and knee joints
osteonic canal
central canal in an osteon, contains blood vessels and nerves; also called haversian canal
freely movable joint characterized by a joint cavity; also called a synovial joint
distinguish between compact and spongy bone on the basis of structural features
compact bone consists of closely packed osteons, or haversian systems; spongy bone consists of plates of bone, called trabeculae, around irregular spaces that contain red bone marrow
identify the general features of a long bone
shaft called the diaphysis: relatively thick compact bone that surrounds a hollow space called the medullary cavity:contains yellow bone marrow in adults; expanded portion at each end: epiphysis: spongy bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone; end covered by hyaline cartilage: articular cartilage; perisoteum: fibrous con. tissue membrane covers outer surface
identify the features of the pectoral girdle and upper extremity
2 clavicles (collarbone) and 2 scapula (shoulder blade) make up the pectoral girdle; humerus: region between the shoulder and elbow; radius: lateral side of region between the elbow and wrist; Ulna: medial side; hand: 8 carpal bones (wrist), 5 metacarpal (palm), 14 phalanges (fingers)
discuss four functions of the integumentary system
protects against water loss, ultraviolet light, invading organisms, and other injuries; sense receptors in the skin detect info. about the environment; regulates body temp. through constriction and dilation of blood vessels, sweat gland activity, and insulating adipose tissue; synthesizes vitamin D when exposed to ultraviolet light
summary of elastic connective tissues
matrix filled with yellow elastic fibers; elasticity; vocal cords and ligaments between adjacent vertebrae
around the brain and spinal cord; provide protection; dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
structural unit of bone; haversian system
summary of elastic cartilage connective tissue
numerous elastic fibers in matrix; supports and provides framework; external ear, epiglottis, auditory tubes
C2 vertebrae has a dens, or odontoid process, that projects upward from the vertebral body like a tooth; acts as a pivot for rotation of the atlas
a slightly movable joint
summary of smooth muscle tissue
located in walls of internal organs and blood vessels; contracts viscera and blood vessels; sindle shaped cells with tapered ends; one centrally located nucleus; involuntary control
Structure, method of secretion, and example of exocrine glands
Unicellular exocrine glands are goblet cells that produce mucus in the lining of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts; Simple gland: duct has no branches, compound: branches; Tubular: gland and duct merge with no change in diameter, Acinar/alveolar: distal part of the duct expands to form a saclike structure
Describe the structure, location and function of simple columnar epithelium
Single layer of tall cells; often contains goblet cells; found in stomach and intestines; offers some protection to underlying tissues
process by which cells of the epidermis become filled with keratin and move to the surface where they are sloughed off
summary of cardiac muscle tissue
lcated in the heart; pumps blood through the heart and blood vessels; cell shape: cylindrical, branching, intercalated disks join cells together end to end; one, centrally located nucleus; striations; involuntary control
elastic fibers
composed of the protein elastin; are not very strong, but they are elastic; also called yellow fibers
cartilage cell
sudoriferous gland
a gland in the skin that produces perspiration; aka sweat gland
mast cell
a connective tissue cell that produces heparin and histamine; the name given to a basophil after it leaves the blood and enters the tissues
Description and example of Apocrine secretion mode
Portion of cell is pinched off with the secretion; mammary glands and certain sweat glands
cell that destroys or resorbs bone tissue
identify the feature of the lower extremity
femur: region from hip to knee; fibula: lateral side of region between knee and ankle; tibia: medial side: aka shin bone: larger, weight bearing; patella: kneecap; 7 tarsal bones (ankle): largest is calcaneus (heel bone); 5 metatarsal (instep of foot); 14 phalanges (toes)
ball-shaped end of one bone fits into cup-shaped socket of another; permits widest range of movement in all planes, including rotation; shoulder, hip
describe the structure of hair and its relationship to the skin
The central core of hair is the medulla, which is surrounded byt he cortex and the cuticle. Hair is divided into the shaft, which is visible, and the root, which is embedded in the skin and surrounded by the hair follicle. The distal end of the hair follicle expands to form a bulb around a central papilla. Stratum basale cells in the bulb undergo mitosis to form hair.
oval-shaped condyle fits into elliptical cavity of another; angular motion but not rotation; occipital condyles with atlas; metacarpals and metatarsals with phalanges
branch of microscopic anatomy that studies tissues
classify bones according to size and shape
short bones are roughly cube shaped, consist primarily of spongy bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone; flat bones are thin, flattened, and usually curved--two layers of compact bone with middle layer of spongy bone called the diploe, found in skull; long bones are longer than they aqre wide; other bones are considered irregular
discuss the characteristics and functions of the various glands associated with the skin
sebaceous glands are oil glands associated with hair follicles; They secrete sebum to keep hair & skin soft & pliable. Merocrine sweat glands open to the surface of the skin through sweat pores. Apocrine sweat glands, limited to the axillae and external genitalia, open into hair follicles. Ceruminous glands are modified sweat glands in ear canal.
discuss five functions of the skeletal system
support, protection, movement, storage (calcium, other inorganic ions, fat); blood cell formation
connective tissue cell that produces fibers
Description and example of holocrine secretion mode
entire cell discharged with secretion: sebaceous (oil) glands
an immovable joint; ex. sutures in the skull
Summary of loose (areolar) connective tissue
collagenous and elastic fibers produced by fibroblasts are embedded in a gel-like matrix; binds organs together; beneath the skin, between muscles
a dark brown or black pigment found in parts of the body, especially skin and hair
formation of bone; also called osteogenesis
discuss the process by which bones develop and grow
intramembranous ossification (uses a connective tissue membrane; occurs in the skull); endochondral ossification (uses a hyaline cartilage model; occurs in all other bones; epiphyseal plate is growth region); both types use osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts; appositional growth increases diameter instead of length
identify the bones of the skull
Cranial bones: parietal (2), temporal (2), frontal (1), occipital (1), ethmoid (1), sphenoid (1)
Facial bones: Maxilla (2), zygomatic (2), mandible (1), nasal (2), Palatine (2), inferior nasal concha (2), lacrimal (2), vomer (1)
Auditory ossicles: malleus (2), incus (2), stapes (2)