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66 Cards in this Set

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How is the right lung different from the left lung?
Lobes:3/2, fissures:2/1. Right is shorter, wider, higher volume, & heavier.
Name the root of the lung and the structures located in it.
Hilum/hilus: 1⁰ bronchi, pulm arts/veins, bronch arts/veins, pulm nerve plexus, lymph nodes/ves
What are the blood circulations of the lungs and what do they supply?
Bronchial circulation: stromal tissue. Pulmonary circulation: parenchymal tissue.
What are the lymphatic plexuses of the lungs?
Superficial lymphatic plexus and deep lymphatic plexus.
What does the superficial (subpleural) lymphatic plexus drain and its route?
Surface of the lungs to the bronchopulmonary/hilar nodes
What does the deep lymphatic plexus drain and its route?
starts at the terminal bronchioles and drains most of lung tissue to pulm lymph nodes to bronchopulmonary/hilar nodes
Which lymph plexus drains the parenchymal tissue of the lungs?
There are no lymph vessels at the level of the alveoli.
Lymph from the lungs ends up in the circulation by which method on the right and left sides?
Left = thoracic duct, right = multiple lymphatic ducts. Both to the subclavian veins.
Sensory information from the lungs is sent over which nerve fiber?
Vagus via the pulmonary plexus.
Motor info to the lungs is sent over which fibers?
PSNS: vagus via pulm plexus. SNS: T2-6 via pulm plexus, more control through circulating NE/Epi.
Where can we find pleural membranes (3)?
Line the thoracic cavity, lat walls of mediastinum, covers lungs.
What are the types and subtypes of pleural membranes?
Visceral pleura. Parietal pleura (mediastinal, cervical, costal, diaphragmatic)
Rib level of the lowermost edge of the parietal pleura
MCL-8th rib, MAL-10th rib, LVC-12th rib
What can you find in the pleural cavity?
Serous fluid, it is a potential space.
What are the pleural reflections called?
Costal, sternal
What are the major pleural sinuses/recesses called?
Costomediastinal sinus/recess and costodiaphragmatic sinus/recess
What defines the costodiaphragmatic recess and where is it most accessible?
The costal reflection, lateral inferior border.
What defines the costomediastinal recess and where is it most accessible?
Sternal reflection. 4th ICS or via the para-xiphoid approach.
From where does the visceral pleura receive blood?
Art: bronchial arteries; ven: bronchial veins.
Describe the arterial and venous circulation of the parietal pleura.
Art: intercostal art (costal) and Internal thoracic artery (mediastinal). Venous: via corresponding veins
What is the lymphatic drainage of the pleura?
Visceral (superficial lymphatic plexus), costal (intercostal lymph Nds), diaphragmatic (dia. LNds), mediastinal (mdstnl LNds.)
What is the motor and sensory nerve supply to the visceral pleura?
Motor: none. Sensory: via the pulmonary plexus to the vagus
What section of the parietal pleura are innervated by the phrenic nerve?
Mediastinal pleura, Cervical pleura, diaphragmatic pleura
What area of the parietal pleura is innervated by the intercostal nerves of T1-T11?
The costal pleura and the most peripheral areas of the diaphragmatic pleura
How is the parietal peritoneum innervated?
The phrenic nerve and, in the most peripheral areas, the lower intercostal nerves
What is the mediastinum?
The area of the thorax located between the two lungs
What are the borders of the mediastinum?
Sternum, Thoracic vertebrae, Mediastinal pleura, Superior thoracic aperture, diaphragm
What are two and four divisions of the mediastinum?
Two: superior and inferior mediastinum; Four: superior, anterior, middle, and posterior mediastinum
What can be found in the superior mediastinum?
Trachea, Esophagus, Vagus nerves, Aortic arch, thymus gland, phrenic nerve, superior vena cava, aortic arteries, sympathetic trunk
What is found in the anterior mediastinum?
Lymph nodes, adipose tissue, portion of the thymus
What can be found in the middle mediastinum?
Pericardial sac, phrenic nerves, heart, roots of the eight major blood vessels
What can be found in the posterior mediastinum?
Esophogus, vagus nerve, 1⁰ bronchi, descending aorta, azygos and hemiozygos vein
Name the facial bones and whether they are paired or unpaired.
Unpaired: vomer, mandible. Paired: maxilla, palatine, zygomatic, inf. Nasal conchae, lacrimal, nasal
How are the ethmoid bone and vomer bone related?
perpendicular plate of the ethmoid extends inf. And fuses with vomer to form 2/3 of nasal septum
Which bones fuse together to form the hard palate?
palatine process of the maxilla and the palatine bones
How do we classify airways according to function?
Conductive airways and gas exchange airways
Because the conductive airways have no gas exchange going on, how else can we refer to them?
Anatomical dead space
The conducting airways extend from where to where?
From the nose and mouth to the terminal bronchioles
What defines the mouth/oral cavity?
It extends from the lips to the palatoglossal fold
What is the palatoglossal fold or anterior pillar?
Fold of tissue located on each side of the oral cavity due to the palatoglossal muscle
What is the palatoglossal arch or the anterior arch?
The two palatoglossal folds on each side that form the palatoglossal arch, border btwn oral cavity and oral pharynx
What is the palatopharyngeal fold
fold of tissue on each side of the oropharynx posterior to the palatoglossal folds
What forms the palatopharyngeal arch (aka posterior arch)?
two palatopharyngeal folds
What lies between the anterior and posterior arch?
the palatine tonsil, which is lymph nodal tissue
How many subunits is the tongue made of and how are those subunits connected?
two halves that join together by the median sulcus
How is the tongue divided from front to back?
by the terminal sulcus, which divides it into an anterior 2/3 and posterior 1/3, described as inverted V
What is the foreman cecum?
the area where each limb of the terminal sulcus join together
What is the body and root of the tongue?
Body: anterior 2/3 (oral portion). Root: posterior 1/3 (pharyngeal portion)
What is the sensory nerve supply to the tongue?
Anterior 2/3: lingual (V3) and chorda tympani (CN7). Posterior 1/3: glossopharyngeal (CN9) and internal laryngeal nerve (vagus)
What is the internal laryngeal nerve a subunit of?
Vagus>Superior>Internal
What are lingual tonsils and where can they be found?
at or near the surface of the pharyngeal portion of the tongue
What is the lingual frenulum
a thin fold of connective tissue that connects the bottom of the anterior portion of the tongue to the floor of the mouth
What is the genioglossus muscle and what else is it known as?
safety M., protruder M. Origin: mandible. Insertion: tongue. Allows you to stick out tongue
What is the external nose made of?
two nasal bones and a series of nasal cartilages
What is the sensory information from the external nose transmitted on?
V1 of the trigeminal N.
The nasal septum is made up of what components?
The vomer B., The perpendiular plate of the Ethmoid B., The septal cartilage
What are the components of the Ethmoid B?
Crista Galli, Cribiform Plate, Perpendicular Plate, Ethmoidal Cells, Middle nasal concha, Superior nasal concha
What are the two parts of the palate and their constituents?
hard palate (palatine B and palatine process of the maxilla). Soft palate (uvula)
What are the anterior nares and their relative location to the nasal cavity?
anterior openings between the atmosphere and the nasal cavity, opening slightly below the level of the floor of the nasal cavity
What is the vestibule of the nasal cavity?
chamber at the entrance of the nasal cavity; the spaces immediately inside the anterior nares; nasal hair originates here
What is the atrium of the nasal cavities
Slightly depressed area at the anterior end of the middle meatus
What are the names of the conchae and what bone do the arise from?
Superior, middle, and inferior nasa conchae. Superior and middle: ethmoid B. Inferior: Separate Bone
Define meatus of the nasal cavity
Narrow passageway located beneath the corresponding nasal concha
Describe the drainage into the meatuses of the nasal cavity
superior: ethmoidal sinus and sphenoethmoidal recess. Middle: frontal, maxillary and portion of ethmoidal sinuses. Inferior: nasolacrimal duct
Define the posterior nares
passageway between the nasal cavities and the nasopharynx
What are the epithelial linings of the internal nose?
the olfactory epithelium: top. stratiphied squamous epithelium: vestibule, anterior 1/3. pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium: posterior 2/3