Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/55

Click to flip

55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DNA Polymerase
The enzyme that attaches the nucleotide bases together.
Ionic Bond
When atoms steal electrons or give up electrons.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Modifies protein to be shipped out of the cell. Folding.
Elements
The fundamental substances that make up all matter.
Why do atoms come together?
To fill their valence shell.
Codon
The 3 bases on mRNA that are the pattern for 1 amino acid.
Carbohydrates
Sugars and Starches
Base unit - Saccharide
Bond - Glycosidic bonds
Lysosomes
Highly acidic.
Dissolves amino acids.
Breaks down debris.
Homeostasis
Condition in which the body's internal environment remains within certain set physiological parameters.
Equilibrium. Controlled by feedback loops.
Facilitated Diffusion
Moves things from high to low concentration
No energy required.
Uses protein carrier molecules.
3 Components of a Feedback Loop
Receptor
Control center
Effector
Anatomy
Form and structure of body parts
Nonpolar molecules
Balanced molecules. Do not dissolve in water.
Simple Diffusion
Moves things from high to low concentration.
No energy required.
Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
The leading strand is copied from one end to another, the lagging strand is copied in small chunks.
What is mRNA?
Makes a copy of the gene.
Name of 3 part of Central Dogma
Replication
Transcription
Translation
Life processes
Make a living thing living.
Respond, Reproduce, Metabolism, Movement, Growth, Differentiation
Polar Molecules
Unbalanced molecules. Will dissolve in water.
Catabolism
Breaking down of big molecules into small ones.
Gives off energy.
Physiology
How body parts function
Lipids
Fats
Base unit - Fatty Acid Chain
Bond - none
Matter
Anything that has weight and takes up space.
Semiconservative
In DNA replication, the chromosomes that go to each new cell have one parent and one child chromosome.
Active Transport
Requires Energy
Particles move form low concentration to high concentration.
Nucleus
Brain of the cell, has DNA
Cellular Respiration
The making of ATP.
Uses oxygen.
Hypertonic
The solution has a higher concentration of salt outside the cell than inside the cell.
Osmosis
Water is moved by this.
Moves from high concentration of water to low concentration of water.
Covalent Bond
When atoms share one or more electrons.
Proteins
Workhorse of the cell
Base Unit - Amino Acid
Bond - Peptide Bond
Base unit of DNA and RNA
Nucleotides
Metabolism
Sum of all chemical reactions that occur within the body.
Enzymes
4 things
Special Proteins
Name ends in ASE
Lowers the activation energy
Base unit - amino acid
Name 3 differences between RNA and DNA
RNA can be a single strand
RNA has one less oxygen
RNA has uracil instead of thymine
Nucleotides are made of 3 things...
a 5 Carbon Sugar
a Phosphate Group
a Nitrogenous Base
Okasaki Fragments
The small segments that are copied on the lagging strand of DNA.
Anabolism
Build up big molecules from small ones. Requires energy.
Isotonic
The concentration is equal inside and outside the cell.
Atom
The smallest complete unit of an element.
What is Transcription
When the mRNA gets a copy of the gene.
What is Translation?
The making of a protein from the copy.
What is rRNA?
It makes up the Ribosomes.
What is Replication
The process by which DNA makes a copy of itself in preparation for cell division.
What is tRNA?
Brings complimentary amino acids to the A site.
Name 4 types of nitrogenous bases on DNA
Adenine
Thymine
Guanine
Cytosine
Hypotonic
The solution has a lower concentration of salt outside the cell than inside the cell.
Helicase
Opens up strands of DNA by breaking the H bonds temporarily.
Crenation
When a cell shrinks due to losing water.
Hypertrophy
When a cell expands or bursts because of water coming into the cell.
Phospholipid Bilayer
The cell membrane that acts like a screen.
DNA Ligase
The enzyme that joins the Okasaki fragments together.
Selectively permeable membrane allows:
water
co2
oxygen
small lilpid soluble molecules.
Glycolysis
First step in making ATP
Selectively permeable membrane doesn't allow:
Large things
Charged particles
Anything water soluble