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86 Cards in this Set

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Describe the life cycle of RBCs (breakdown of hemoglobin to erythropoeisis).
Hemoglobin is broken down into heme & globin. GLOBIN is broken into amino acids & recycled for protein synthesis. Iron is removed from heme as Fe3+ & transferrin transports it in bloodstream. Fe3+ is then stored inside ferretin in muscle, liver, spleen. On release transferrin carries it to red bone marrow for hemoglobin synthesis. HEME w/ no iron is converted to biliverdin (green) then bilirubin (yellow). Enters liver & released into small intestine w/ bile --> large intestine + bacteria = urobilinogen. Urobilin = urine. Sterlobilin = feces.
What are 3 symptoms of anemia? What are 6 major causes?
Symptoms - fatigue, intolerable to cold (low ATP), blue skin (low hemoglobin). Causes - iron deficiency, B12 & folic acid deficiency (megaloblastic anemia), insufficient hemopoiesis (pernicious anemia), RBC plasma membranes rupture prematurely (hemolytic anemia), deficient hemoglobin synthesis (thalassemia), red bone marrow destruction (aplastic anemia).
How do the RBCs behave in a person w/ sickle-cell disease? Who does it affect? What are some symptoms & treatments?
Contain Hb-S (abnormal hemoglobin). Forms rodlike structure that bend RBC & ruptures it easily. Inherited & affect ppl around malaria belt. Provides resistance to malaria. Symptoms - anemia, jaundice, pain, fatigue (tissue damage due to oxygen debt). Analgesics, hydration, oxygen, antibiotics, blood transfusion.
Describe blood temp, pH, ECF%, amount in males/females.
38º, 7.35-7.45 pH, 20% ECF, 5-6L male, 4-5L female
What is a common site for venipuncture to draw a blood sample?
Median cubital vein
In a "settled" sample of blood, what are the 3 layers from top layer to bottom & their proportions?
55% plasma, 1% buffy coat (WBC + platelets), 45% formed elements (RBC)
% of total blood volume occupied by RBCs.
Hematocrit
What hormone stimulates erythropoietin (EPO) which triggers production of RBCs?
Testosterone
Below normal # of RBCs.
Anemia
Condition of abnormally high RBCs that raises viscosity of blood which increases blood flow resistance. Linked to high blood pressure & stroke. Causes: abnormal increase in RBC production, tissue hypoxia, dehydration, blood doping, use of EPO by athletes.
Polycythemia
In plasma, what is the ratio of water, solutes --> plasma proteins & other content?
91.5% water, 8.5% solutes which breaks down into 7% plasma proteins & 1% other content.
What are the 3 major plasma proteins (highest to lowest) & their functions?
Albumin - most numerous (55%), lipid carrier, contributes to osmotic pressure. Globulin - carrier, type of antibody/immunoglobulin. Fibrinogen - blood clotting.
Besides plasma proteins, what other substances are found in plasma solute?
Gases, enzymes, hormones, electrolytes, nutrients, wastes.
Process by which formed elements of blood develop.
Hemopoiesis / hematopoiesis
The amount of WBCs depends on what 2 factors?
Invading pathogens, foreign antigens
Where does hemopoiesis first occur before birth? What becomes the primary site of hemopoiesis in 3rd trimester & throughout life?
Yolk sac --> liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes --> red bone marrow is primary site.
Highly vascularized connective tissue found in spongy bone. Present chiefly in axial skeleton, pectoral/pelvic girdles, humerus, femur.
Red bone marrow
From which connective tissue do pluripotent stem cells develop?
Mesenchyme
Blood cells enter blood stream through ___, large leaky capillaries surrounding red bone marrow.
Sinusoids (sinuses)
Formed elements don't divide once they leave red bone marrow except for ___.
Lymphocytes
Pluripotent stem cells develop into what 2 stem cells?
Myeloid, lymphoid stem cells
Some myeloid stem cells differentiate into ___ which cannot reproduce themselves & give rise to more specific elements of blood.
Progenitor cells
What do the following progenitor cells eventually give rise to? CFU-E, CFU-Meg, CFU-GM?
CFU-E (erythrocytes), CFU-Meg (megakaryocyte-->platelets), CFU-GM (granulocytes: neutrophils, monocytes)
Generation after progenitor cells.
Precursor cells (blasts)
Draw blood cell chart (hemopoiesis).
See p694 AP or AP1 notes.
Hormone produced by kidneys that increase # of red blood cell precursors.
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Hormone produced by liver that stimulates platelet formation from megakaryocytes.
Thrombopoietin (TPO)
Oxygen-carrying protein that gives blood red colour.
Hemoglobin
Production & destruction of RBCs per second is at least ___.
2 million
What feature on a RBC increases surface area?
Biconcave disc
What are the benefits of a RBC being anucleated & without organelles?
More room in cytosol for oxygen transport. No organelles = no ATP needed for cell metabolism = no oxygen consumed = maximum delivery of oxygen.
What makes up a hemoglobin molecule? How many molecules of O2 can it transport?
Globin - 4 polypeptide chains. Heme (nonprotein) in each of 4 chains. Iron ion in each heme which binds to 1 oxygen molecule = total 4 O2 molecules can be transported.
Which part of hemoglobin does CO2 bind to?
Globin
What is the effect of nitric oxide binding to hemoglobin?
Release of NO causes vasodilation to improve blood flow & oxygen delivery.
What is the lifespan of a RBC?
120 days - due to wear/tear & no organelles to repair.
What type of cell phagocytize worn-out RBCs & where does it occur?
Macrophages. Liver, spleen, red bone marrow.
Transporter for Fe3+ in bloodstream.
Transferrin
Iron-storage protein.
Ferretin
Production of RBCs.
Erythropoiesis
What is the main stimulus for erythropoiesis?
Decrease in oxygen-carrying capacity of blood (hypoxia)
Condition of cellular oxygen deficiency that stimulates release of erythropoietin.
Hypoxia
Rate of erythropoiesis is measured by procedure called ___.
Reticulocyte count
Which leukocytes are granular vs. agranular?
Granular - basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils. Agranular - monocytes, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, NK cells.
Formed element that stains purple & is granular. Involved in inflammation/allergies & releases heparin, histamine, serotonin.
Basophil
Phagocyte that stains pink & is bilobed. Destroy antigen-antibody complexes, worms, & releases histaminase (counteracts basophil).
Eosinophil
Phagocyte that is multi-nuclear. 1st responder to bacteria tissue damage. Releases lysozyme, oxidants, defensins.
Neutrophil
Phagocyte with kidney/horseshoe shaped nucleus. "Finisher" - destroys microbes after neutrophils.
Monocyte
Increase of WBC above normal - protective response to invading microbes, strenuous exercise, anesthesia, surgery, etc.
Leukocytosis
Condition of abnormally low WBC & may be caused by radiation, shock, chemotherapeutic agents.
Leukopenia
Process by which WBCs leave bloodstream. What are the 3 steps in this process?
Emigration (formerly diapedesis). Roll, stick, squeeze.
Process by which phagocytes follow chemical signals to microbes or inflammed tissue.
Chemotaxis
Type of lymphocyte with adaptive immunity that releases plasma antibodies which are followed by ___ that destroy the pathogen. Memory function lets it remember past invaders.
B-lymphocyte direct T-lymphocyte
Type of lymphocyte with general immunity that attacks pathogens, microbes, tumors.
NK Cells (natural killer)
Type of formed element that develops from megakaryocytes that splinter into 2000 to 3000 fragments. Disc-shaped with many vesicles but no nucleus. Life span 5-9 days. Forms blood clot.
Thrombocyte (platelet)
Replacement of cancerous or abnormal red bone marrow w/ healthy red bone marrow.
Bone marrow transplant
How long does it take transplanted bone marrow to produce enough WBC for protection?
2-3 weeks
What are 3 drawbacks of bone marrow transplants?
Donor T-cells may attack recipient's tissues, recipient's surviving T-cells may attack donor cells, patient must take immunosuppressive drugs for life which increase infection risk & other side effects.
What are some advantages of cord-blood transplants?
Stem cells are easily collected from umbilical cord before birth & can be stored indefinitely. Less likely to cause graft-versus-host disease.
Sequence of responses that stops bleeding.
Hemostasis
Large amount of blood loss
Hemorrhage
What are the 4 main steps of hemostasis?
1) Vascular spasm. 2) Platelet plug formation. 3) Clotting/coagulation 4) Clot retraction.
First step in hemostasis when vasoconstriction occurs locally & blood flow decreases.
Vascular spasm
Hormone released by platelets that cause proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth mm fibers, fibroblasts to help repair.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
Second step in hemostasis where platelet adhesion occurs, release reaction of ADP, serotonin, thromboxane-2 (last 2 are vasoconstrictors), & aggregration occurs (platelets group).
Platelet plug formation
Blood plasma minus clotting proteins is called ___.
Serum
Describe the extrinsic pathway of hemostasis.
Occurs outside blood vessels in tissue & is the quicker process. Tissue protein called tissue factor/thromboplastin activates co-factor 10 & 5 to form enzyme prothrombinase.
Describe the intrinsic pathway of hemostasis.
Occurs locally in blood & is slower process. Factor 12 activates co-factor 10 & 5 to form enzyme prothrombinase.
What marks the beginning of the common pathway of hemostasis?
Synthesis of prothrombinase
Describe the common pathway of hemostasis.
Prothrombinase + Ca2+ convert prothrombin into thrombin. Thrombin + Ca2+ convert fibrinogen (soluble) into fibrin (insoluble).
What are the 2 positive feedback effects of thrombin?
It speeds up prothrombinase formation & activates platelets.
Last step of hemostasis where fibrin clot is tightened.
Clot retraction
What vitamin is needed to synthesize clotting factors?
Vitamin K
System that dissolves inappropriate clots & clots at damage site once repaired. Breakdown of clot is called ___.
Fibrinolytic system. Fibrinolysis.
Inhibitor of platelet adhesion & release
Prostacyclin
Substances that delay, suppress, or prevent blood clotting such as antithrombin, heparin, activated protein C.
Anticoagulants
Clotting in an unbroken vessel is called ___. The clot itself is ___. Any type of debris transported in bloodstream is ___.
Thrombosis. Thrombus. Embolus.
Antigens on surface of erythrocytes composed of glycoproteins & glycolipids called ___. Blood plasma antibodies called ___.
Agglutinogens (antigens). Agglutinins (antibodies).
Blood groups are based on the presence or absence of various ___.
Antigens
How many blood groups & antigens are there?
At least 24 blood groups. 100+ antigens.
Antigen-antibody binding
Agglutination
Of the ABO blood types, which is the universal donor vs. recipient?
Donor - O. Recipient - AB.
Most common disease associated w/ Rh incompatibility in newborns. Occurs when maternal anti-Rh antibodies cross placenta & cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs. Can be prevented by giving Rh- women an injection of anti-Rh gamma globulin antibodies after delivery, miscarriage, abortion.
Hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN)
Why is the first born baby unlikely to have HDN?
Mother is likely to going to make anti-Rh antibodies after baby is born so baby suffers no damage.
Solutions that contain antibodies.
Antisera
Condition of bleeding spontaneously due to minor trauma. Treatment - transfusions of blood plasma or clotting factor. Drug desmopressin.
Hemophilia
Cancerous WBC interfering w/ WBC, RBC, platelet production. Oxygen deficiency, susceptible to infection, abnormal clotting. Treatment - chemo, radiation, stem cell transplant, interferon, antibodies, blood transfusion.
Leukemia