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114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
osteoblasts
immature bone cells
osteocytes
mature bone cells
osteoclasts
bone cells that break
chondroblasts
immature cartilage cells
chondrocytes
mature bone cells
periosteum
outside layer of bone
endosteum
inside layer of bone
perichondium
outside layer of cartilage
endochondrium
inside layer of cartilage
bone growth type
appositional
cartilage growth type
appositional and interstial
bone vascularity
bone tissue gets blood by vessels
cartilage vascularity
cartilage tissue gets blood through diffusion
diaphysis
located in the shaft
epiphysis
ends
metaphysis
between diaphysis & epiphysis in bone
epiphyseal plate/line
area of growth in shaft-made of cartilage
anatomy
the study of internal & external structures
physiology
the study of their functions
gross anatomy
microscopic
organs
different groups of tissues form
organ systems
organs grouped together
tissues
cells of similar form and function
4 types of tissue
1.Epithelial
2.Connective
3.Muscle
4.Nervous
plasma membrane
-forms the outer surface of cell
-separates inside of cell from the outside of cell
-semipermable membrane-water passes freely through
cytoplasm
inside of cell
made up of cytosol & organelles
cytosol
mostly water & some solutes (dissolved)
organelles
structures within all specific functions
nucleus
site of genetic material
physical isolation
stops fibers from entering cell
main functions of plasma membrane
1.physical isolation
2.regulation of exchange w/enviroment
3.sensitivity
4.structural support
physical isolation
stops fibers from entering cell
regulaton of exchange within enviroment
extracellular area
requires energy in the form of ATP
sensitivity
allows cells to work together
receptor cells that help you with cell to cell communication
structural support
supports in the intracellular area
cell transport
how ions and nutrients move in and out of cells
Active and passive
active transport
energy is required to transport solutes
Energy=ATP
passive transport
doesnt require energy-requires concentration gradient
diffusion
tendency of atoms, molecules, ions and solutes to move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
osmosis
type of diffusion with water molecules
moves from areas of high to low
isotonic
no concentration gradient on outside of cell
solution has same water concentration as inside of cell
cells wanna be isotonic
hypertonic
-solution has less water compared to inside of cell
-water will move out of cell
-cell will shrink
hypotonic
-solution has more water compared to inside of cell
-water will move inside of cell
-cell will swell
hemolysis
red blood cells are put in hypotonic solutions causing them to burst
crenation
red blood cells put into hypertonic solutons causing them to shrink
parts of integument
skin
accessory structures (skin, nails, etc)
function of the skin
-protective covering
-retards water loss
-houses sensory receptors
-synthesizes chemicals (vit D)
-contains immune system cells(langerhorn cells)
-excretes small quantities of waste
layers of skin
epidermis
dermis
hypodermis
layers of dermis
-papillary layer
-reticular layer
papillary layer of the dermis
-layer closest to the epidermis-feeds epidermal cells
-loose connective tissue
-capillaries that feed stratum germinativum
stratum germinativium
-layer closest to dermis
-nourished by dermal blood vessels
-cell division occurs here
stratum spinosum
-layer closer to S. germinativium
-displaced cells manufacture keratin filaments
stratum granulosum
layer closest to the s. spinosum
-keratinocytes flatten (dying), keratin filaments interlock
stratum lucidum
-layer closest to s. granulosum
-only found in thick skin
-densely packed, flattened cells
-filaments thicken=keratin fibers interlocking
stratum corneum
-layer closest to s. lucidum
-flattened, dead cells and interlocking keratin fibers shed
keratinocytes
make keratin, make epithelial tissue waterproof
melanocytes
make melanin
respond to uv radiation
sythesize vitamin D
merkel cells
sensory cells
langerhan cells
epithelial, immune cells
dermis
-connective tissue
-1-2 mm thick
-vascular-blood nerves
-muscles
-sensory receptors
parts of integument
skin
accessory structures (skin, nails, etc)
function of the skin
-protective covering
-retards water loss
-houses sensory receptors
-synthesizes chemicals (vit D)
-contains immune system cells(langerhorn cells)
-excretes small quantities of waste
layers of skin
epidermis
dermis
hypodermis
layers of dermis
-papillary layer
-reticular layer
papillary layer of the dermis
-layer closest to the epidermis-feeds epidermal cells
-loose connective tissue
-capillaries that feed stratum germinativum
stratum germinativium
-layer closest to dermis
-nourished by dermal blood vessels
-cell division occurs here
stratum spinosum
-layer closer to S. germinativium
-displaced cells manufacture keratin filaments
stratum granulosum
layer closest to the s. spinosum
-keratinocytes flatten (dying), keratin filaments interlock
stratum lucidum
-layer closest to s. granulosum
-only found in thick skin
-densely packed, flattened cells
-filaments thicken=keratin fibers interlocking
stratum corneum
-layer closest to s. lucidum
-flattened, dead cells and interlocking keratin fibers shed
keratinocytes
make keratin, make epithelial tissue waterproof
melanocytes
make melanin
respond to uv radiation
sythesize vitamin D
merkel cells
sensory cells
langerhan cells
epithelial, immune cells
dermis
-connective tissue
-1-2 mm thick
-vascular-blood nerves
-muscles
-sensory receptors
reticular layer
below papillary layer
dense connective tissue-leather
hypodermis
-not part of integument
-blood, vessels, nerves, fibers
-loose connective tissue
-adipocyte cells are abundant-help to insulate
skin glands
-subaceous
-sweat
sebaceous glands
-associated with hair folicles
-secretes sebum
-keeps hair soft, pliable and waterproof
sweat glands
-eccrine sweat glands
-apocrine sweat glands
eccrine sweat glands
-most numerous
-found all over body
-concentrated on forehead, neck, and back
-maintain body temp
apocrine sweat glands
-active at puberty
-axillary region, groin, nipples
-communication w/ other windows
modified sweat glad
-cerumious glands of ear-earwax
-mammary glands-breast milk
connective tissue components
-cells
-protein fibers
-ground substance
three categories of connective tissue
-connective tissue proper
-fluid connective tissue
-support connective tissue
connective tissue proper
-loose and dense
-packing of material of body
-ground substance is most volume
-fibers are loosely organized
-3 types
areolar, adipose, and reticular
areolar tissue
-located in the dermis
-allows movement and gives support
-contains cells that provide defense
adipose tissue
located beneath the skin (sides, butt,and boobs)
-insolaton
-stores energy
adipose vs. areolar
adipocytes account for most of the volume of adipse tissue
areolar tissue becomes adipose from over heating
-tissue doesnt become areolar when dieting-only get deflated-easier to gain weight if fat once
reticular tissue
-located in liver, kidney, lymph nodes, and bone marrow
-provides supporting framework with no independent movement
dense connective tissue
2 types
dense regular
dense irregular
dense regular tissue
-tendons, ligament, covering skeletal muscles
-firm attachment, conducts pull of muscle, reduces friction between muscles, stabilizes position of bones
dense irregular tissue
-dermis of skin, sheath around bone, sheath around cartilage, sheath around nerves
-strength when forces applied from many directions
fluid connected tissue
-blood and lymph
-details covered in circulatory system
-cells red and white; fibers-clotting; ground substance-plasma
-fibers are not normal unless injury
supporting connective tissue
-cartilage and bone
-provides strong framework
-contains mainly fibers
3 types of cartilage
hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
hyaline cartilage
-flexible but weakest
-connection between ribs and sternum
-conduct passages of respiratory system
-covering of bone surfaces in elbow and knees
-nasal septum
-Function
Stif but flexible support
reduce friction between bony surface
elastic cartilage
-numerous elastic fibers
-resilient and flexible
-location
external earflap
epiglottis
auditory tube
cartilages of larynx
tip of nose?
-function
provides support
allows for distortion without damage
returns to normal shape
fibrocartilage
-very durable
-location
pads w/i knee joints
between pubic and pelvic bones
intervertebral discs
-function
resists compression
prevents bone to bone contact
limist relative movement
bone cells
osteocytes
bone fibers
collegen
ground substance
insoluable crystals
bone functions
-protect and support soft tissues
-provide pt of attachment for muscles
-contains blood producing cells
-stores inorganic salts
compact bone
mainly in diaphysis
tightly packed fibers
subjected to heavy weight
spongy bone
mainly in endosteum of bone
contains branching fibers
transfer heavy weight and space reduce weight of bone
medullary cavity
hollow chamber in compact bone
contains marrow(makes RBC)
anatomical position
legs together
feet flat on the floor
hands at side
palms facing forward
movements performed
by skeletal muscles pullin on bones
2 types of movement
angular
rotation
angular movement
abduction-away from midline
adduction-toward midline
flexion-decrease angle
extention-increase in angle
rotation
moving a part around axis

includes rotation of head(right,left) and rotation of wrist (pronation/supination)
ossification intramembraneous
making of bone from dermal tissue
ossification endochondral
making of bone from cartilage
6 weeks to 30 weeks
1. chondrocytes in endochondrium divide
2.chondroblasts are formed
3.chondroblasts secrete cartilage matrix
4.matrix calcifies
5.endosteum enlargens