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32 Cards in this Set

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What is the dose-dependent progression of effects that anxiety drugs have?
Relax (decrease anxiety)-sedation-anesthesia-coma
What type of drug is Buspar?
Antianxiety drug
How does Buspar work?
Stimulates CNS serotonin receptors, partial agonist.
What effects does Buspar lack that BZD has?
Lacks muscle relaxant, amnesiac, anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects.
What are the most common adverse rxns of Buspar?
Nausea, headache, dizziness, insomnia.
What is an important distinguishing feature between Buspar and BZD when considering SE?
Buspar does NOT cause dependence or withdrawal effects. It is not addictive. Doesn't interact with alcohol.

BZD is addictive.
What is the indicated use for Buspar?
Generalized anxiety disorder.
How do barbiturates work? Why are they dangerous?
Depress CNS. Narrow therapeutic index, highly addictive.
What are some therapeutic uses of Barbiturates?
Effective for sedation, insomnia and in emergency cases, can be used for seizures.
What is the most frequently used class of drugs to treat anxiety?
Benzodiazepines (BZD)
Name three drugs under the BZD class.
Valium, Xanax and Ativan
How do these drugs differ?
The main difference is the duration of action related to their lipid solubility.
What is the prototype for BZD and how do they work?
Valium.

Increases the inhibitory effects of GABA in CNS. GABA facilitators.
What are the pharmacological actions of BZDs? (4)
-Reduction of anxiety
-Sedation, hypnotic actions
-Anticonvulsant
-Muscle relaxor
What are some SE of BZDs? (4)
-Psychological and physical dependence w/ chronic administration.
-Withdrawal including anxiety, confusion, aggitation, restlesness, insomnia.
-CNS depression, drowsiness, ataxia, memory impairment.
-Paradoxial excitement.
Name 4 barbiturate drugs.
1. phenobarbital
2. pentobarbital
3. butabarbital
4. secobarbital
What is the prototype for barbiturates? MOA?
Phenobarbital.

MOA: Interfere w/ sodium and potassium transport across cell membrane. Causes an inhibitory effect on reticular activating system. Inhibits polysynaptic transmission in all areas of CNS.
How does phenobarbital get into CNS?
It readily penetrates CNS due to high lipid solubility. Becomes widely distributed throughout body.
What is the duration of action of phenobarbital?
Long-acting, 1-2 days.
What are some SE of Phenobarbital?

CNS/CP
-Physical and psychologically addicting w/ prolonged use.
-Abrupt w/drawal may be fatal
-Drowsiness and decreased motor performance day after administration.
-Mood, judgement, fine motor skills may be distorted.
-CVS: bradycardia/hypotension
-CP: hypoventilation
Which sedative-hypnotics/anti-anxiety drugs are addicting?
All but Buspar.
Are barbiturates useful for treating anxiety?
NO
How does Dilantin work?
Decreases the influx of NA ions, stabilizing neuronal membranes to depolarization.

Does not cause CNS depression like barbiturates, but it will cause drowsiness, but not hypnosis.
What are the SE of Dilatin?
-CNS
-GI
-Mouth
CNS: Nystagmus and ataxia due to depression of cerebellum/vestibular system.

GI: Nausea and vomitting

Mouth: Gingival hyperplasia, esp. in children. Must brush gums frequently and vigorously.
If serious SE occur, what is the protocal for stopping Dilatin treatment?
Cannot stop abruptly. Could have a rebound seizure that is very profound. Have to ween off.
How does Carbamazepine work?
Reduces the propagation of abnormal impulses in the brain by BLOCKING sodium channels.
What are the SE of Carbamazepine? (ABCD)
Ataxia
Aplastic anemia (alteration of RBC)
Blurred vision
Cardiac Arrhythmias
Dizziness
Drowsiness
How does Valproate work?
Reduces the propagation of abnormal electrical discharge in the brain. It may also ENHANCE the effect of inhibitory GABA.
What are some SE of Valproate?

AGLIST
-GI distress
-Temporary hair loss
-Sedation
-Ataxia
-Impaired platelet function
-Liver toxicity
What kind of seizures is Dilantin used for?
All kinds
What kind of seizures is Carbamazepine used for?
All partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
What kind of seizures is Valproate used for?
Absence seizures and complex partial seizures.