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49 Cards in this Set

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What is another way to think of anxiety?
As level of arousal
What happens to efficiency of performance as level of arousal (anxiety) rises?
Efficiency rises to an optimal level
What type of errors does one commit at less than optimal levels of arousal/anxiety?
Errors of ommission
What type of errors does one commit at higher than optimal levels of arousal/anxiety?
Errors of commission
What happens as levels of arousal rise higher above optimal level?
Increasing emotional disturbance is experienced as anxiety until one is unable to cope.
What are anxiety disorders?
A group of conditions characterized by the presence of excessive anxiety, worry, fear, dread, or tension to the point that functioning is impaired.
What is the mildest form of anxiety disorder?
Generalized anxiety disorder
What are some associated physical symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder?
-Trembling
-Muscle tension
-Autonomic hypersensitivity
-Hyperarousal
What is the essential feature according to DSM criteria for diagnosing generalized anxiety disorder?
The symptoms must have lasted for at least 6 months.
What is Agoraphobia?
Fear of the marketplace
What is the timeframe for a panic attack to develop?
10 minutes
What has to develop within 10 min in order to diagnose a panic attack?
4 or more of the following sx:
-Cardiopulmonary symptoms
-Autonomic symptoms
-GI symptoms
-Neurological symptoms
-Psychiatric symptoms
What are cardiopulm sx associated with panic attack?
Chest pain/discomfort
SOB
palpitations
What are autonomic symptoms associated with panic attack?
Sweating, chills, or hot flashes
What are GI symptoms associated with panic attack?
Feeling of choking
Nausea
What are some neurological symptoms associated with panic attacks?
-Trembling/shaking
-Parasthesia
-Feeling dizzy
What are the psychiatric symptoms associated with panic attacks?
-Derealization
-Depersonalization
-Fear of losing control
-Fear of dying
What are 2 common responses to panic attacks?
Anticipatory anxiety and Avoidance of the situation in which the panic attacks are triggered.
What is Panic disorder with agoraphobia?
A condition of Recurrent, unexpected panic attacks, followed by a month/more of being concerned about more attacks, their implications, and changing behaviors relative to the attacks.
What is Agoraphobia?
Anxiety about being in places or situations where escape might be difficult or embarassing.
What is a Specific phobia?
Excessive fear that is cued by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation.
How are most specific phobias manifested?
By immediate anxiety responses and often panic attacks.
Are people with specific phobias aware that their fear is unrealistic?
Yes
What is Social phobia?
Fear of situations where one is exposed to possible scrutiny by others.
What are obsessions?
Recurrent thoughts, impulses or images that cause marked anxiety or distress
What are compulsions?
Ritualistic behaviors or mental acts that are performed in response to obsessions
What are the features of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder?
-Time consuming
-Significant clinical distress
-Interferes with a person's daily routine
How is Acute Stress Disorder differentiated from PTSD?
Acute: anxiety lasts for 2 days to 4 weeks
PTSD: anxiety lasts for a month or longer
What is the estimated prevalence of anxiety disorders?
12.6%
What are the prevalences of:
-Social phobia
-Specific phobia
-Generalized anxiety disorder
Social phobia = 13%
Specific phobia = 10%
Generalized anx disorder = 5%
What is the lifetime prevalence of ANY anxiety diorder in the nation?
25%
What sex are anxiety disorders more commonly seen in?
Females
When is the usual onset of anxiety disorders seen?
Late adolescence to early adulthood
What brain region is involved in anxiety disorders?
The HPA axis
What are the waves of NT's involved in panic and anxiety?
First wave: epinephrine
2nd wave: cortisol
What is the first step to take in diagnosing an anxiety disorder?
Determine if there is another General medical condition, Substance use, or Mental disorder
What are 3 disorders to consider if the presenting symptom is PANIC ATTACKS?
1. Panic disorder with agoraphobia
2. Panic disorder w/out agoraphobia
3. Panic attacks occuring within the context of another anxiety disorder
What are 4 disorders to consider if the presenting symptom is FEAR, AVOIDANCE, OR ANXIOUS ANTICIPATION about one or more specific situations?
-Social phobia
-Specific phobia
-Panic disorder w/ agoraphobia
-Agoraphobia w/out history of panic disorder
What is a disorder to consider if the presenting symptom is FEAR OF SEPARATION?
Separation Anxiety disorder
What is a disorder to consider if the presenting symptom is RELATED TO RECURRENT AND PERSISTENT THOUGHTS OR RITUALISTIC BEHAVIORS OR RECURRENT MENTAL ACTS?
obsessive compulsive disorder
What are 2 disorders to consider if the presenting symptoms are related to REEXPERIENCING HIGHLY TRAUMATIC EVENTS?
-PTSD
-Acute stress disorder
What is a disorder to consider if the presenting symptom is anxiety and worry associated with A VARIETY OF EVENTS AND SITUATIONS and have persisted FOR AT LEAST 6 MONTHS??
Generalized anxiety disorder
What are 2 disorders to consider if the presenting symptoms are in response TO A SPECIFIC PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSOR?
-Adjustment disorder with anxiety
-Adjustment disorder with mixed Anxiety and Depressed mood
What are 3 treatment types for anxiety disorders?
-Anxiolytics
-Antidepressants
-Psychotherapy
Are treatments effective for anxiety disorders?
Yes - even moreso than angioplasty and atherectomy
What are 4 anxiolytics?
-Benzodiazepines
-Alprazolam
-Clonazepam
-Buspirone
What are types of antidepressants?
-Tricyclics
-SSRIs
-MAOIs
What is NOT an antidepressant?
Buproprion
What does Buproprion or wellbutrin do to anxiety disorders?
Makes them WORSE