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22 Cards in this Set

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What is anthropology and what does the study of anthropology encompass?
“Anthropology is the scientific and humanistic study of human beings. It encompasses the evolutionary history of humanity, physical variation among humans, the study of past societies, and the comparative study of current –day human societies.”
What is the goal of anthropology?
The goal of anthropology is to is to describe, analyze, and explain different cultures.
What is the comparative perspective? Why is it important? Give an example.
Comparative perspective is the systematically study of two or more cultures to identify differences and commonalities.
What is the holistic perspective? Why is it important? Give example.
A holistic perspective is when anthropologist combines the study of human biology, history, and the learned and shared patterns of human behavior and thought we call culture in order to analyze human groups. Its is important because -----------
. What is the difference between ethnography and ethnology?
Ethnography is an in depth study of one cultural group while ethnology focuses on comparing and contract practices in different cultures to find regularities
What is the difference between emic and etic ethnographies?
Emic ethnography attempts to capture what ideas and practices mean to members of a culture while etic ethnography describes and analyzes culture according to principles and theories drawn from western scientific tradition.
What are the 4 subfields of anthropology and what is the goal of each?
The four subfields of anthropology are physical, archaeology, culture, and linguistic anthropology. The goal of physical anthropology is understand human biology; The goal of archaeology anthropology is to look at the material remains people leave behind and to try to infer their cultural patters from it; The goal of culture anthropology is to describe, analyze, and explain different cultures; and the goal of linguistic anthropology is to try to understand how works work in human communities.
According to your textbook, what are the three major contributions anthropology can make?
The 3 major contributions that anthropology can make is 1) providing an understanding of other group of people. 2) To provide insight on what it means to be an human being. 3) Presenting useful ways of thinking about culture.
What does Lyon-Callo argue is the cause of homelessness? How do his conclusions differ from commonly held cultural ideas about why people are homeless or how to solve the problem of homelessness?
Lyon-Callo argument on the case of homelessness is that it is a result from a cultural and political philosophy that embraces the free markets and private initiative as the solution problems. He argues that most Americans believe the problem of homelessness can be solved through charity or other service. His conclusion differ from commonly held cultural ideas because his argument suggests that homelessness is not only a results from unemployment, exploitation of workers, and hard times but also a belief that homelessness people have that causes them to embrace America free market.
. What is the common understanding of ethnocentrism? What is Barger’s definition of
ethnocentrism? Is Barger’s definition better? Why or why not?
The common understanding of ethnocentrism is that the terms means, “Thinking one’s own group’s ways are superior to others” while Barger’s definition defines it has, “making false assumptions about others ways based on our own limited experience”. Barger’s definition is better because it implies that everyone is ethnocentric and that the word is not just limited to people who have a negative mind set of other people culture.
. If everyone is ethnocentric, what can we do about ethnocentrism? What is an achievable goal? How can we develop a more balanced understanding of cultural differences?
Since everybody is ethnocentric, the first thing we can do about ethnocentrism is to catch ourselves when we realize that we’re being ethnocentric and control this bias so we can gain a better understanding. We can develop a more balanced understanding of cultural differences by recognizing that we do not understand and that we may be falsely assuming something that is not the case when it comes to different cultures
What does Barger suggest are two essential questions to ask to gain insight into the life experience of others in their cultural contexts?
Two essential questions to ask to gain insight into the life experience of others in their cultural contexts are: 1) What are their meanings about the behavior and situation? 2)What are the adaptive functions of the behavior and situation?
How does Barger define cultural relativism? What does he suggest is the real issue of relativism?
Barger defines cultural relativism as, “not judging others ways and accepting them as equal to our own”. He suggests that the real issue of relativism is that “at what point is one group justified in intervening in the behavior of another group?”
. Does cultural relativism mean we should approve of all cultural practices even if they offend our values or standards of human rights? Explain.
No, cultural relativism doesn’t meant that we should approve of all cultural practices even if they offend our values or standards of human right because we still have the right to our own ways since they provide important meanings and adaptive functions for us.
What does Barger suggest is the most effective means of promoting social change?
Barger suggests that the most effective means of promoting social changes is self determination
. Using specific details from the YouTube clip “Tuvan Throat Singers” as an example, explain how focusing on cultural meaning and function can help us understand cultural differences.
When you focus on the cultural meaning and function of the Tuvan Throat Singer it allows you to get past the fact that the throat singers songs may be annoying to people not familiar to the sound and instead allows you to focus on their actual cultural. This can help us better understand cultural differences because it can be looked at as cultural relativism. By not judging their songs I was able to better understand their cultural.
What are the characteristics of independent and interdependent societies?
The characteristics of an independent society that they are in control of life, saying what on your mind instead of holding it in, having a sense of character, being sure of yourself, etc.
What does the experiment with the fish reveal about cultural differences?
The experiment with the fish reveal that different cultural perceives things differently
Using the example of how to treat a guest, apply the comparative perspective and the holistic perspective.
Looking at how Americans and Japanese’s treat a guest from a comparative perspective the two are different because Americans tends to not pamper their guest, while Japanese cater to them more and find their needs
. According to Abu-Lughod, what is the problem with the concept of culture?
According to Abu-Lughod, the problem with the concept of culture is anthropologist and others tend to overemphasize the differences between “us and them” when it comes to cultural groups.
What does Abu-Lughod suggest are solutions to the problem with the concept of culture?
Abu-Lughod solutions to the problem with the concept of culture is to avoid focusing on rules/norm, focusing as much on commonalities and adaptive function as on differences and focusing on more on diversity within cultural groups.
Explain Bourdieu’s game analogy. How does this help us avoid the problems Abu-Lughod discusses?
Bourdieu’s analogy is that we should treat culture as a game. Just as a good player knows the rules, does what the game demands, and uses many strategies to accomplish goals a person should do the same with culture. Also in a game a good player is constantly inventing, improvising, responding to variety of situation. A good player has embodied the sense of the game just as a person should do with culture.