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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
domestic–public dichotomy
Contrast between women’s role in the home and men’s role in public life, with a corresponding social devaluation of women’s work and worth.
gender roles
The tasks and activities that a culture assigns to each sex.
gender stratification
Unequal distribution of rewards (socially valued resources, power, prestige, and personal freedom) between men and women, reflecting their different positions in a social hierarchy.
Mother-centered; often refers to a household with no resident husband-father.
Political system ruled by men in which women have inferior social and political status, including basic human rights.
patrilineal-patrilocal complex
An interrelated constellation of patrilineality, patrilocality, warfare, and male supremacy.
sexual dimorphism
Marked differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals.
sexual orientation
A person’s habitual sexual attraction to, and activities with, persons of the opposite sex, heterosexuality; the same sex, homosexuality; or both sexes, bisexuality.
Sex & gender
Sex refers to biological differences, while gender refers to the cultural construction of male and female characteristics.
Sexual dimorphism
marked differences in male and female biology besides the primary and secondary sexual features (for example, the average difference in height and weight between men and women is an aspect of sexual dimorphism, but not the differences in genitalia and breasts).
Matrilineal, Matrilocal, Matrifocal Societies
Female status tends to be relatively high in matrilineal, matrilocal societies (e.g., Minangkabau).

Reasons for high female status were that women had economic power due to inheritance, and the residence pattern lent itself to female solidarity.
Patrilineal-Patrilocal Societies
tends to enhance male prestige opportunities and result in relatively high gender stratification
Women do most of the cultivation, cooking, and raising children, but are isolated from the public domain.

Males dominate the public domain
Use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims.
Belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces.
rites of passage
Culturally defined activities associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another.
Behavior that is formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped, performed earnestly as a social act; rituals are held at set times and places and have liturgical orders.
Tylor first studied religion anthropologically and developed a taxonomy of religions.

Animism was seen as the most primitive and is defined as a belief in souls that derives from the first attempt to explain dreams and like phenomena.
Magic vs. religion
Magic is an instrument of control, but religion serves to provide stability when no control or understanding is possible.

Malinowski saw tribal religions as being focused on life crises.
Rites of Passage
religious rituals which mark and facilitate a person's movement from one (social) state of being to another (e.g., Plains Indians’ vision quests).
Rites of passage 3 phases
Separation – the participant(s) withdraws from the group and begins moving from one place to another.

Liminality – the period between states, during which the participant(s) has left one place but has not yet entered the next.

Incorporation – the participant(s) reenters society with a new status having completed the rite.
Religion and Cultural Ecology: Sacred Cattle in India
Ahimsa is the Hindu doctrine of nonviolence that forbids the killing of animals.

Western economic development experts often use this principle as an example of how religion can stand in the way of development.

Hindus seem to irrationally ignore a valuable food source (beef).

Hindus also raise scraggly and thin cows, unlike the bigger cattle of Europe and the U.S.

These views are ethnocentric and wrong as cattle play an important adaptive role in an Indian ecosystem that has evolved over thousands of years

Hindus use cattle for transportation, traction, and manure.

Bigger cattle eat more, making them more expensive to keep.
One of Marx’s opposed classes; owners of the means of production (factories, mines, large farms, and other sources of subsistence).
capitalist world economy
The single world system, which emerged in the 16th century, committed to production for sale, with the object of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs.
Dominant structural position in the world system; consists of the strongest and most powerful states with advanced systems of production.
A policy of extending the rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations or of taking and holding foreign colonies.
Structural position in the world system intermediate between core and periphery.
Weakest structural position in the world system.
working class
Or proletariat; those who must sell their labor to survive; the antithesis of the bourgeoisie in Marx’s class analysis.
England and France
The Industrial Revolution began in England but not in France.

2. The French did not have to transform their domestic manufacturing system in order to increase production because it could draw on a larger labor force.

3. England, however, was already operating at maximum production so that in order to increase yields innovation was necessary.

4. Weber argued that the pervasiveness of Protestant beliefs in values contributed to the spread and success of industrialization in England, while Catholicism inhibited industrialization in France.
World System
Influence of the Capitalist World Economy
The defining attribute of capitalism is economic orientation to the world market for profit.

2. Colonial plantation systems led to monocrop production in areas that once had diverse subsistence bases (beginning in the seventeenth century).

3. Colonial commodities production was oriented toward the European market.
argued that Marx’s model was oversimplified and developed a model with three main factors contributing to socioeconomic stratification: wealth, power, and prestige
The modern world system
product of European imperialism and colonialism.

A world in which nations are economically and politically interdependent
The political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time.
development anthropology
The branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimension of, economic development.
refers to a policy of extending rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign colonies
"white man’s burden"
asserted that native peoples were not capable of governing themselves and needed the white British colonialist to provide and maintain order.
mission civilisatrice
ideological legitimization for French colonialism to spread French culture, language, and religion throughout the colonies.
Settler postcolonies include countries that are dominated by European settlers with only sparse native populations (e.g., Australia).

Nonsettler postcolonies are characterized by large native populations and only a small number of Europeans (e.g., India).

Mixed postcolonies refer to countries with both sizable native and European populations (e.g., South Africa and Kenya).
The Greening of Java
Worldwide, the green revolution has increased food supplies and reduced food prices.

2. However, the emphasis on front capital and advanced technological and chemical farming allowed the bureaucratic and economic elites of Java to strengthen their positions at the expense of poorer farmers.

3. Ann Stoler’s analysis of the green revolution’s impact on Java suggested that it differentially affected such things as gender stratification, depending on class.
cultural imperialism
The rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others, or its imposition on other cultures, which it modifies, replaces, or destroys—usually because of differential economic or political influence.
The offspring of an area who have spread to many lands.
As used by Antonio Gramsci, a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing its values and accepting its “naturalness.”
Can be used to explain why people conform even without coercion
A style and movement in architecture that succeeded modernism. Compared with modernism, postmodernism is less geometric, less functional, less austere, more playful, and more willing to include elements from diverse times and cultures; postmodern now describes comparable developments in music, literature, visual art, and anthropology.
Something that is creatively “read,” interpreted, and assigned meaning by each person who receives it; includes any media-borne image, such as Carnaval.
World Stratification System
A world in which there is a substantial contrast between both capitalists and workers in the core nations and workers in the periphery
refers to changes that result when groups come into continuous firsthand contact
Impact of European colonialism of Africa
Whole countires, along with social groups and dividsions within them, were colonial inventions.
Hundreds of ethnic groups and "tribes" are colonial constructions.
Revival of Adam Smith's classic economic liberalsim, the idea that governments should not regulate private enterprise and that free market forces should rule; a currently dominant intervention philosophy.
a social system in which property is owned by the community and in which people work for the common good.
theory advocation that land, natural resources, and major industries should be owned by society as a whole. Achieve this goal through democratic elections.
Problems in post socialist nations
The rise of nationalism, in the form of ethnic/religious minorities
Unemployment and poverty
Difficulities in establishing new values, social relations, and groups.
Core Gender Identity
Individuals innermost concept of self as "male" or "female"
Developed between 18 months to 3 years of age
4 Levels of sexual development
1. Determination of chromosomal sex (xx/xy)
2. Determination of gonadal sex (ovaries/testicles)
3. Determination of phenotypic sex
4. Determination of phychological sex
Relationship between economic roles and gender stratification
Economic roles would differ on how the culture views gender stratification.
Less gender stratification if economic roles are more diverse.
Borrowing of cultural traits between societies, either directly or ghrough intermediaries