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50 Cards in this Set

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epidermis
the outermost portion which itself is subdivided into think layers, stata and dermis.
statum
outmost layer of the epidermis
dermis
or the true skin, which has a framework of connective tissue, and contains many blood vessels, nerve endings, and glands.
stratum basle, or stratum germinativum
Stratum germinativum (also stratum basale or basal cell layer) is the layer of keratinocytes that lies at the base of the epidermis immediately above the dermis. It consists of a single layer of tall, simple columnar epithelial cells lying on a basement membrane. These cells undergo rapid cell division, mitosis to replenish the regular loss of skin by shedding from the surface. About 25% of the cells are melanocytes, which produce melanin which provides pigmentation for skin and hair. as the epidermal cells die from the gradual loss of nourishment, they undergo changes, mainly their cytoplasm is replaced by large amounts of protien called keratin which serves to thicken and protect skin.
keratin
Keratins are the main constituent of structures that grow from the skin
stratum corneum
The stratum corneum ("the horny layer") is the outermost layer of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). It is composed mainly of dead cells that lack nuclei. As these dead cells slough off, they are continuously replaced by new cells from the stratum germinativum (basale). In the human forearm, for example, about 1300 cells/cm2/hr are shed and commonly accumulate as house dust.

Cells of the stratum corneum contain keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by preventing water evaporation. In addition, these cells can also absorb water, further aiding in hydration and explaining why humans and other animals experience wrinkling of the skin on the fingers and toes (colloquially called "pruning") when immersed in water for prolonged periods.

The thickness of the stratum corneum varies according to the amount of protection and/or grip required by a region of the body. For example, the hands are typically used to grasp objects, requiring the palms to be covered with a thick stratum corneum. Similarly, the sole of the foot is prone to injury, and so it is protected with a thick stratum corneum layer. In general, the stratum corneum contains 15 to 20 layers of dead cells.
exfoliation
Exfoliation in cosmetology is a cosmetic technique aimed at improving skin's appearance by removing dead skin cells from the surface of the skin. Removing excess dead skin cells can reveal the younger and healthier-looking skin underneath. occurs natually at all times.
Melanin
cells in the deepest layer of the epidermis produce melanin, a dark pigment that colors the skin and protects it from the harmful rays of sunlight. Melanin is the primary determinant of human skin color.
melanocytes
cells that produce melanin, Melanocytes are cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis and in the middle layer of the eye (the uvea).
dermis
the so called true skin, has a framework of the elastic connective tissue and is well supplied with blood vessels and nerves. The dermis is a layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis by a basement membrane. It also harbors many nerve endings that provide the sense of touch and heat. It contains the hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands and blood vessels. The blood vessels in the dermis provide nourishment and waste removal to its own cells as well as the Stratum basale of the epidermis.
dermal papillae
portions of the dermis extend upward into the epidermis, allowing blood vessels to get closer to the suface cells, these extensions are called dermal papillae, they can be seen on the fingers and toes.
The dermal papilla are extensions of the dermis into the epidermis. They sometimes can be perceived at the surface of the skin.
cutis
Cutis is the combined term for the epidermis and the dermis, the two outer layers of the skin. Underneath is the subcutis.
subcutaneous layer
the dermis rests on the subcutaneous layer, sometimes referred to as the hypodermis or the superficaial fasia.
sebaceous glands
are saclike in structure, and their oily secrections.Sebaceous glands can usually be found in hair-covered areas, where they are connected to hair follicles. The glands deposit sebum on the hairs, and bring it to the skin surface along the hair shaft. The structure consisting of hair, hair follicle, and sebaceous gland is known as a pilosebaceous unit.
sebum
lubricates the skin and hair to prevent drying. The ducts of the sebaceous oil glands open the hair follicles.
vernix caseosa
Vernix, also known as Vernix caseosa, is the waxy or "cheesy" white substance found coating the skin of newborn humans. It is secreted by the fetus's sebaceous glands in utero, and is hypothesized to have antibacterial properties. Vernix is the Latin word for "varnish." The vernix (or "varnish"), "varnishes" the baby. Caseosa is "cheesy" in Latin
meibomian glands
modified sebaceous glands, are associated with the eyelashes and produce secrections that lubricates the eyes.
sudoriferous (sweat) glands
or sweat glands, are coiled, tubelike structures located in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. most of the glands functions is to cool the body, they release sweat, or perspiration, htat draws heat from the skin as the moisture evaporates at the surface.
eccrine type sweat glands
Eccrine sweat glands are distributed over the entire body surface but are particularly abundant on the palms of hands, soles of feet, and on the forehead. These produce sweat that is composed chiefly of water with various salts. These glands are used for body temperature regulation.

Eccrine sweat glands are coiled tubular glands derived from the outer layer of skin but extending into the inner layer. They are distributed over almost the entire surface of the body in humans and many other species, but are lacking in some marine and fur-bearing species. The sweat glands are controlled by sympathetic cholinergic nerves which are controlled by a centre in the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus senses core temperature directly, and also has input from temperature receptors in the skin and modifies the sweat output, along with other thermoregulatory processes.
apocrine sweat glands
Apocrine sweat glands develop during the early to mid puberty ages approximately around the age of 13-15 and release more than normal amounts of sweat for approximately a month and subsequently regulate and release normal amounts of sweat after a certain period of time. They are located wherever there is body hair. [1]

These glands produce sweat that contains fatty materials. Mainly present in the armpits and around the genital area, their activity is the main cause of sweat odor, due to the bacteria that break down the organic compounds in the sweat.

Emotional stress increases the production of sweat from the apocrine glands, or more precisely: the sweat already present in the tubule is squeezed out. Apocrine sweat glands essentially serve as scent glands.

Note that the name apocrine sweat gland is archaic; these glands are no longer believed to secrete their products by an apocrine mechanism in which the apical portion of the cell is sloughed off with secretory products inside. Rather, the apocrine sweat glands secrete in an merocrine fashion: membrane-bound vesicles bind to the plasma membrane of secretory cells and release products by exocytosis with no net loss of the plasma membrane. These glands are still called apocrine sweat glands to distinguish them from the eccrine sweat glands.


Apocrine sweat glands develop during the early to mid puberty ages approximately around the age of 13-15 and release more than normal amounts of sweat for approximately a month and subsequently regulate and release normal amounts of sweat after a certain period of time. They are located wherever there is body hair. [1]

These glands produce sweat that contains fatty materials. Mainly present in the armpits and around the genital area, their activity is the main cause of sweat odor, due to the bacteria that break down the organic compounds in the sweat.

Emotional stress increases the production of sweat from the apocrine glands, or more precisely: the sweat already present in the tubule is squeezed out. Apocrine sweat glands essentially serve as scent glands.

Note that the name apocrine sweat gland is archaic; these glands are no longer believed to secrete their products by an apocrine mechanism in which the apical portion of the cell is sloughed off with secretory products inside. Rather, the apocrine sweat glands secrete in an merocrine fashion: membrane-bound vesicles bind to the plasma membrane of secretory cells and release products by exocytosis with no net loss of the plasma membrane. These glands are still called apocrine sweat glands to distinguish them from the eccrine sweat glands.
ceruminous glands
Ceruminous glands are specialized sudoriferous glands (sweat glands) located in the external auditory canal. They produce cerumen or earwax to lubricate and clean the auditory canal.
cerumen, the ciliary glands
Glands of Moll, also known as ciliary glands, are modified apocrine sweat glands that are found on the margin of the eyelid. They are next to the base of the eyelashes, and anterior to the Meibomian glands within the distal eyelid margin. These glands are relatively large and tubular-shaped.

Moll's glands empty into the adjacent lashes. Glands of Moll and Zeis secrete lipid that adds to the superficial layer of the tear film, retarding evaporation.

The glands of Moll are prone to infection and blockage of its duct with sebum and cell debris. Blockage of the gland's duct causes swelling which can manifest itself as a stye. The glands of Moll are named after Dutch oculist Jacob Anton Moll (1832-1914).
mammary glands
Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the young. These exocrine glands are enlarged and modified sweat glands and are the characteristic of mammals which gave the class its name.
hair follicle
a sheath of epithelial and connective tissue that encloses the hair.
hair shaft
the part of the hair that projects above the skin
hair root
portion below the skin.
arrector pili
hair raiser. Erectores pilorum (singular Erector pili) are tiny muscle fibers attached to each hair follicle, which contract to make the hairs stand on end, causing goose bumps. They exist in most mammals including humans.
nail root
new cells form continuously in a growth region (nail matrix) located under the proximal end of the nail, a portion called nail root.
nail lunula
literally little moon at the proximal end of the nail appears lighter because it lies over the thicker growing region of the nail.
nail cutical
an extension of the stratum corneum, seals the space between the nail plate and the skin above the root.
albinism
a hereditary disorder that affects melanin production, ther is lack of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.
pallor
is paleness of the skin often caused by reduced blood flow or by reduction in the hemoglobin, as occurs in cases of anemia.
flushing
is redness of the skin, often related to fever. Signs of flucshing are most noticeable in the face and neck.
cyanosis
when there is not enought oxygen in circulating blood, the skin may take on a blushish discolortion.
jaundice
a yellowish discoloration of the skin may be due to the precsence of excessive amount of bile pigments, mainly bilirubin in the blood, (bile is a substance in the liver that aids in the digestion of fats.
carotenmia
another possible cause of a yellowish discoloration of the skin in excessive intake of carrots and other deeply colored vegetables.
acid mantle
The acid mantle is a very fine, slightly acidic film on the surface of the skin acting as a barrier to bacteria, viruses and other potential contaminants that might penetrate the skin. These contaminants and other chemicals are primarily alkaline in nature and the skin's moderate acidity helps to neutralize their chemical effects.
excoriation
An excoriation is an erosion or destruction of the skin by mechanical means, which appears in the form of a scratch or abrasion of the skin. It is commonly seen in other skin disorders causing itching/pruritus: dry skin, dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, scabies, etc. The condition is characteristic of a symptom of other illnesses like liver failure where pruritus is caused by increases of bilirubin.
pallor
Pallor is a reduced amount of oxyhemoglobin in skin or mucous membrane, a pale color which can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight, anaemia or genetics. It is more evident on the face and palms. It can develop suddenly or gradually, depending on the cause.

Pallor is not usually clinically significant unless it is accompanied by a general pallor (pale lips, tongue, palms, mouth and other regions with mucous membranes). It is distinguished from similar symptoms such as hypopigmentation (loss of skin pigment).

Pale skin is also a very light skin tone most commonly associated with people of European descent, particularly people of Celtic and Scandinavian descent. In addition, people who avoid excessive sun exposure and thus avoid unhealthy sun tanning also tend to have paler complexions in comparison to their peers, particularly during summer
erythema
Erythema is an abnormal redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion. It is one of the cardinal signs of inflammation.

It can be caused by infection, massage, electrical treatments, acne medication, allergies, exercise or solar radiation (sunburn), any of which can cause the capillaries to dilate, resulting in redness. Erythema is a common side effect of radiotherapy treatment due to patient exposure to electromagnetic radiation.
macule
The macule is the simplest dermatological lesion. It is flat and can only be seen and not felt. The macule is noted by a change in color of the skin. It may be brown, blue, red or exhibit a lesser pigment or an absence of pigment. The color of the lesion is one way in which a diagnosis may be focused.

Macules may develop as a result of cystic or otherwise severe acne. They occur after a pimple or cyst has healed, and may remain for up to six months. They are sometimes known in such cases as "pseudo-scars", but unlike true scars they are not permanent
decubitus ulcer
is a bedsore
another name for eczema
atopic dermatsis
scientific name for itching
An itch (Latin: pruritus) is a sensation felt on an area of skin that causes a person or animal to desire to scratch that area. Itching can be related to anything from dry skin to cancer.
psoriasis
Psoriasis (IPA pronunciation: [sə'raɪ.əsɪs]) is a disease which affects the skin and joints. It commonly causes red scaly patches to appear on the skin. The scaly patches caused by psoriasis, called psoriatic plaques, are areas of inflammation and excessive skin production. Skin rapidly accumulates at these sites and takes a silvery-white appearance. Plaques frequently occur on the skin of the elbows and knees, but can affect any area including the scalp and genitals. Psoriasis is hypothesized to be immune-mediated[1][2] and is not contagious.
erythrocyte
Red blood cells are also known as RBCs, haematids, or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow", with cyte nowadays translated as "cell"). A schistocyte is a red blood cell undergoing fragmentation, or a fragmented part of a red blood cell.
dermatosis
In medicine, a dermatosis is a generic term for disease of the skin
pruritus
An itch (Latin: pruritus) is a sensation felt on an area of skin that causes a person or animal to desire to scratch that area. Itching can be related to anything from dry skin to cancer.
scleroderma
Scleroderma is a rare, chronic disease characterized by excessive deposits of collagen in the skin or other organs. The localized type of the disease, while disabling, tends not to be fatal. Diffuse scleroderma or systemic sclerosis, the generalized type of the disease, can be fatal as a result of heart, kidney, lung or intestinal damage.[1]
carotenodermia
Carotenodermia (also carotenaemia, carotenemia or hypercarotenemia) is a yellowish/orange discoloration of the skin, most often occurring in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet as a result of high levels of carotene in the body. It is most commonly found in vegetarians. It is also very typically seen in infants and small children, and in their case the discoloration is most visible in the skin on their nose. This symptom, also known as xanthosis cutis, is reversible and harmless.[1] Carotenodermia has been observed to occur upon chronic doses in excess of 30 mg of carotenoid per day, most often caused by eating an overabundance of carrots. Though all pigmented fruits and vegetables contain some amount of carotene, especially large amounts of it are in breast milk, carrots, squash, sweet potato, pumpkin, spinach, beans, egg yolks, corn and yams.