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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the definitive diagnostic of AIDS?
CD4 T-cell count below 200
AIDS Defining Illness
What is HAART?
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
HAART can cure HIV.
T or F
False
Cannot cure HIV
How is HIV transmitted?
Present in all body fluids
What are the three phases of HIV?
Flu-like acute retroviral syndrome
Clinical latency
Late Stage- CD4 counts drop (opportunistic infections)
What are the four categories of HIV drugs?
Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI)
Non-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)
Protease Inhibitors (PI)
HIV fusion inhibitors
What is the prototype of the NRTIs?
Zidovudine
How does Zidovudine work?
Pro-drug
ZTP competes with natural nucleotide triphosphates
What are the adverse effect of Zidovudine?
Anemia and Neutropenia from Bone Marrow Suppression
Lactic Acidosis with Hepatic Steatosis
What is the difference between NRTIs and NNRTIs?
NNRTIs not structurally related to naturally occurring nucleotides
Bind to the active center of Reverse Trascriptase
Direct inhibition
What is the only NNRTI used for HIV?
Efavirenz
What are the adverse effects of Efavirenz?
CNS symptoms (dizziness, insomnia, drowsiness, and sleep disturbances
Rash
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
What are the most effective antiretroviral drugs?
Protease Inhibitors
PI are usually used in combination with NRTIs.
T or F
True
What are the adverse effects of PIs?
Hyperglycemia/Diabetes
Fat Maldistribution (pseudo-Cushings)
Hyperlipidemia
Increased Bleeding in Hemophiliacs
Reduced Bone Mineral Density
What does protease do?
Catalyzes the final step in the HIV maturation
What is the prototypic PI?
Lopinavir/Ritonavir
What is the HIV fusion inhibitor?
Enfuvirtide
What does Enfuvirtide do?
Prevents HIV entry into CD4 T-cells
What are the adverse effects of Enfuvirtide?
Injection-Site Reactions
Pneumonia
What are the tests used for HIV?
ELISA (48 hours to complete)
Three rapid HIV blood tests
What is the follow-up confirmation test?
Western blot assay
What does CD4 T-cell counts measure?
Indicator of how much immunocompetence remains; goal of high counts
What is viral load?
HIV RNA in plasma; goal of low counts
Treatment of symptomatic or acute HIV disease should be immediate and aggressive.
T or F
True
All drugs should be changed if there is resistance or allergy to one HIV drug.
T or F
False
Change one drug in allergy
Change all drugs in resistance
What is the best way to reduce transmission of HIV from mother to child?
Minimize maternal viral load
HAART- Zidovudine
Treatment starting 14th week of gestation
During labor and delivery
Infant 6 weeks postpartum
What should be started within hours after exposure to body fluids?
Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP)