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24 Cards in this Set

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What are viruses?
obligate intracellular parasites that require the active participation of the metabolic processes of the host to survive.
Describe a virus. (3)
1. Smallest infectious agent
2. Consist of nucleic acid enclosed in a protein coat.(nucleocapsid)
3. Whole infective particle is termed a virion.
Name and describe the 2 major virus types.
DNA viruses: enter host cell nucleus and direct the generation of new viruses. ex:smallpox, herpes, papilloma virus.
RNA Viruses: direct the generation of new viruses without involving the host's nucleus. Copy of DNA made from RNA-reverse transcriptase. ex: influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, retroviruses(AIDS).
What are the 3 mechanisms by which antiviral drugs work?
1. Inhibiting nuceic acid synthesis
2. Inhibiting attachment to or penetration of host cells.
3. Immunomodulation(supress growth)
Which antiviral drugs act as inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis(4)?
1. acyclovir
2. vidarabine
3. ribavirin
4. zidovudine(AZT)
What are the general characteristics of the prototype acyclovir(3)?
1. prevents viral DNA replication
2. Looks like a DNA base so it integrates into DNA and breaks up virus.
3. High affinity for viral DNA polymerase compared to human cells. Specific to virus.
What are the uses(3) and side effects of acyclovir(4)?
uses:
1. herpes simplex infections
2. Varicella-zoster infections(shingles)
3. Chicken pox in immunocompromised patients.
side effects:
1. GI disorders
2. Headache, fatigue and hair loss
3. Nephrotoxicity
4. Encephalopathy(rare)
How does AZT work?
inhibits reverse transcriptase
What is AZT used for and what are the SE of it(3)?
use: AIDS
Side effects:
1. Hematolgic toxicity
2. Neurotoxicity
3. Damages bone marrow
What antiviral drugs are inhibitors of viral penetration of host cells(2)?
1. amantadine
2. gamma globulin
How does amantadine work? What are the side effects?
Blocks the pentration of influenza A virus into host cells.
side effects:
CNS: confusion, hallucination, seizures, and coma.
Describe the use of gamma globulin.
It is a non-specific treatment for short term defense against viral infections.
What are the general characterstics of the immunomodulators(3)?
1. naturally occuring glycoproteins produced by mammilian cells.
2. involved in immune functions
3. produce enzymes that inhibit the translation of viral mRNA into viral proteins.
What are the two groups of interferons?
alpha, beta
What are the uses(4) and side effects of interferons(2)?
uses for alpha:
1. AIDS related bone cancer
2. Hepatitis C infection
3. Cancer
uses for beta:
1. MS
Side effects:
1. flu like symptoms
2. bone marrow suppression
What are diseases caused by fungal infections called and give a general description of them?
1. mycoses
2. Often chronic in nature
3. more difficult to treat than bacterial infections because of the tissues they target(poorly vascularized)skin, nails, and hair.
Name and describe the two types of fungal infections.
1. Superficial: skin, scalp, or mucus membranes.
2. Systemic: infect internal organs and tissues such as the lungs or blood. Often life threatening and difficult to treat.
What are the five antifungal drug classes?
1. Polyene macrolides: Amphotericin B, Nystatin
2. Imidazoles: ketoconazole, miconazole
3. Pyrimidines: Flucytosine
4. Allylamine: Terbinafine(lamasil)
5. Misc. Agents: Griseofulvin
What are the general characteristics of Amphotericin B(3)?
1. MOA: interfers with permeability and transport functions of fungal cell membranes.
2. Binds specifically to ergosterol(fungal membrane sterol)
3. broad spectrum
What is Amphotericin B used for and list its side effects(4)?
uses: life threatening systemic fungal infections.
side effects:
1. hypersensitivity
2. renal toxicity
3. fever, chills, headache
4. anemia
What are the uses(2) and side effects(3) of Ketoconazole?
uses:
1. systemic infections
2. topical eye infections
side effects:
1. hypersensitivity
2. hepatotoxicity
3. gynecomastia
What are the general characteristics of Grisefulvin(2)?
1. MOA: inhibits fungal cell mitosis
2. binds to microtubules and interferes with spindle formation in dividing cells leading to inhibtion.
What are the uses and side effects(4) of Griseofulvin?
use: fungal diseases of the skin(athlete's foot, ring worm)
side effects:
1. allergic reaction
2. GI disorders
3. headache
4. photosensitivity
What are the major concerns for PT with patients using antifungal drugs(3)?
1. Very likely to encounter these patients.
2. Patients will often be weak or debilitated with life threatening infections
3. Must observe isolation levels and take precautions to protect yourself and the patient.