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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Coccidiosis?
enteric disease caused by Eimeria or Isospora spp
What spp is coccidiosis especially important in?
poulty industry
True or False: Coccidiosis is generally host specific and complete entire life cycle in single host
Describe the Coccidial Life Cycle...
1. sporoluated oocysts are ingested from the environment
2. sporozites are liberated in the intestine
3. sporozites enter host cell and transform into trophozite
4. trophozite produces merozoite
merozoite transform into macrogamonts and microgamonts
5. microgamonts fertilize macrogamonts to form zygotes which produce zygotes and oocysts
6. oocyst are passed in the feces
7. oocysts are sporulated in the environment
What is the difference between coccidiostatic and coccidiocidal drugs?
coccidiostatic- arrest development of the parasite, do NOT kill
coccidiocidal- kill most of the coccidal stages
What is the drug/treatment of choice for coccidia in small animals
What is the shuttle program/rotation(switch)?
shuttle change anticoccidial drugs during a single grow out period- rotation change anticoccidals between grow out period
What two groups of drugs are anticoccidials for chickens?
Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors and hydroxyquinolones
What drugs are classified under dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors?
ormetoprim, trimethoprim, and pyrimethamine
What drug is classified under hydroxyquinolones that is used as an anticoccidial agent in chickens?
decoquinate (Deccox)
What is the MOA of decoquinate?
(anticoccidal in chickens)- inhibition of coccidial respiration by interfering with cytochrome-mediated electron transport of parasite's mitochondria
True or False: decoquinate (Deccox) is found in 6% premix chicken feed
How is decoquinate used in dogs?
it can be used as a prophylaxis in dogs- hepatozoan canis
What coccidiostat is structurally related to thiamine that acts on the first generation shizont
What is the MOA of Amprolium?
acts on the first generation schizont to prevent merozoite production; inhibits thiamine utilization by the parasite
What precaution should be taken before administration of amprolium?
it should be diluted!
True or False: ionophores are coccidiocidal agents
False, ionophores are coccidiostats in chickens
What is the MOA of ionophores?
related to the ability to form lipophilic complexes with alkali metal cations and to transport cations across biological membranes(causing the sporozoites to swell) acting against extracellular spoprozoites and merozoites
What coccidiostat is extremely toxic to equine?
monesin, and generally the entire class of drugs
What is effect of Monesin in ruminants?
in ruminants increases weight gain and enhances feed efficacy
T/F: Salinomycin, narcin, and semiduramicin are examples are feed additives?
What is the MOA of Toltrazuril?
stops the development of parasite at the intracellular level
What conditions should Toltrazuril be given in horses and dogs?
EPM and heptazoon canis
What anticoccidal agent is used in humans that also has cross resistance to Toltrazuril?
What is Diclazuril used to treat?
coccdia, toxoplasmosis, and EPM
As a feed additive, Diclazuril is used in rotation with?
Coccivac B (coccidiosis vaccine)
What is the agent of EPM?
Sarcocystitis neurona
What is the newest therapy used for the treatment of EPM?
antiprotozoal/cidal oral paste: Triasine derivative
What treatment is given to expect 75% improvement of EPM cases?
Ponazuril (metabolite of tolatrzuril)
What tx of EPM can produce enterocolitis?
Navigator (nitazoxanide)
What is the MOA of ntazoxanide (navigator)?
shuts down respiration in the target organism S. neurona