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42 Cards in this Set

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Define Antihelmintic agent
drugs that kills internal parasites such as helminths or worms
Vermicide
antihelmintic that paralyzes the worm and results in the passage of live worm in the feces
Antinematodal
drug that treats infection of nematodes or round worms: hookworms,whipworms and strongyles
Anticestodal
treats infection of cestodes such as tapeworms or segmented flatworms
Antiternatodal
treats flukes or unsegmented flatworms (paragonimus, fasciola, and dicrocoelium parasites)
Antiprotozoal agents
treats single celled organisms, Coccidia, Giardia, and toxoplasma organisms
Coccidiostats
inhibit the growth of Coccidia
What nine subcomponents make up antinematodal drugs?
benzimidazoles, probenzimidazles, imidazothiazoles, tetrahydropyrimidines,
organophosphates, macrocycli lactones, heterocyclic compounds, heartworm adulticides, and other miscellaneous agents
What are seven benzimidazole drugs?
thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole, oxfendazole, and cambendazole
What is the mechanism of action of Benzimidazoles?
Disrupts microtubules of nematodes, has broad spectrum activity, larvicidal and ovicidal activity.
What animals are Benzimidazoles used in?
Equine, Companion, Cattle, and other Food animals
What does thiabendazole have a wide range against?
ascarids and stronglyes, also has antiinflammatory and antifungal activity
What BZD combination is used daily in preventing heartworm, hookworm infection and removal of whipworms and ascarids from the intestine?
Oxibendazole and Diethyl-Carbamazine
What dangers are to be considered when given Oxibendazole and Diethyl-Carbamazine combo?
drug may be hepatotoxic
What is mebendazole approved for and in what spp?
Not approved in cats, approved in dogs against adult hookworms, ascarids, and whipworms
How often does Fenbendazole(pancur) have to be administered in dogs and cats?
must be given for 3 days for maximum effect
How are BZD's metabolized and excreted?
metabolized by hydroxylation at C5, then conjugated to glucuronide and sulfate, which is then excreted in the urine. can also be excreted in the feces, unchanged
Why is milk and slaughter clearence times required?
required before human consumption due to potential tissue and milk residues
What are the two probenzimidazole compounds?
Netobimin and Febantel
What is Netobimin converted to after administration and where? Febantel?
Netobimin is converted to Albendozole and Febantel is converted to Fenbendazole is the GI tract
What is netobimin affective against?
nematocidal, cestocidal, and fasciolicidal activity in ruminants and nematocidal activity in horses
What is febantel effective against?
nematodes in swine, ruminants, and zoo animals
True or False: the MOA of febantel is similiar to BZD's
True
What drug(s) is(are) Imidazothiazoles?
Levamisole
In the US, Levamisole is used in what spp?
cattle, sheep, and swine
What is the MOA of Levamisole?
Has cholinergic(Ach) activity that causes sustained muscle contraction and paralysis in nematodes. It also has muscarinic nad nicotinic effects
How much Levamisole is excreted in the urine after 12 hours?
40%
How long does it take for Levamisole to be eliminated in the feces?
8 days
What are signs of Levamisole toxicity?
salivation, resp. distress, spasmodic colic, increase in GI motility, drop in heart rate
True or False: (if false, why)Levamisole may also enhance immune responsiveness and has a broader safety range than BZD.
False: Levamisole may also enhance immune responsiveness and has a narrower safety range than BZD.
What are the Tetrahydropyrimidine drugs?
Pyrantel and Morantel
Which tetrahydropyrimidine salt formulation has a greater activity?
The salt of morantel have greater activity than pyrantel
What is the MOA of pyrantel?
acts as deplorizing neuromuscular blocking agent in nematode and the vertebrae host; acts as acetylcholine-100 times more potent
What drug is 100 times more potent than Ach, and acts as acetylcholine?
Pyrantel, a tetrahydropyrimidine drug
Pyrantel is normally excreted how?
in urine as metabolites and some in feces unchanged
Besides acetylcholine, name another depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent
succinylcholine
What are four organophosphate compounds that can be used in rumninats?
haloxon, coumaphos, naphthalophos, and crufomate
What organophosphate compunds can be used in horses, swine, and dogs?
dichlorvos and trichlorofon
What side effect may happen if given IM dichlorvos in horses?
spasmodic colic
What agents should not be administered in animals with heartworms, b/c may cause death to the dog?
organophosphate compounds
What agent is commonly known as DDVP?
Dichlorvos, an organophosphate compound
What is the MOA of organophosphates?
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, causes paralysis