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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Protozoa.
Unicellular organisms; mostly free living and harmless
Name a few protozoan parasites?
Coccidiosis, giardiasis, crytosporidiosis, thrichomoniasis, babeiosis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, amoebiasis, malaria
What comes under the Phylum Sarcomastigophora
Amoebae and Flagellates
What comes undert the Phylum Apicomplexa?
Coccidia, Haemosporozoans, and Piroplasms
What are the suborders and subclasses under Phylum Apicomplexa?
Suborders: Eimeriorina and Haemospororina (subclass- piroplasmasina: the piroplasms and babesiosis
What diseases are classified under Toxoplasmosis?
Feline intestinal and disseminated toxoplasmosis
What diseases are classified under Suborder Eimeriorina?
Intestinal and external Coccida, Cryptospodiosis, Toxoplasmosis, Canine Neosporosis, and Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis
What diseases are classified under Suborder Haemospororina?
the Haemosporozoans, canine hepatozoonosis
What antiprotozoan phylum has ciliates of mammals and fish?
Phylum Ciliophora
What agent under Phylum Ciliophora may be harmful?
Balantidium Coli
What is used as an effective treatment against Balantidium Coli
Tetracycline and Metronidazol
What is comprised in the Phylum Microspora?
a group of intracellular spore producing parasites that have very little importance in domestic animals; Encephalitozoon cuniculi- in rabbits
What signs are seen in rabbits and dogs infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi?
it causes CNS lesions in rabbits and it can cause CNS disease in young dogs
What is used to treat animals with E. cuniculi infection?
Amoebaesis is most common is what species?
What three mucosal flagellates are important parasites in animals?
giardia, tri-thrichomoniasis foetus, and trypanosoma theileri
Which mucosal flagellate is found in bovine reproductive tract?
What can Tri-thrichomoniasis cause in bovine?
early abortion, pyometra, and sterility
What mucosal flagellate is an intestinal disease in companion animals?
What is and where can you find Trypanosoma theileri?
T. theileri is a mucosal flagellates that occurs in the blood of cattle but clinically has little importance
What Nitroimidazoles is used in the US against amoebae and flagellates?
Why is metronidazole the only nitroimidazole used in the US?
the others are expected to be carcinogenic
What is Metronidazole used to treat?
tx of giardiain dogs, cats and calves
genital trichomoniasis in bovine (not intended for food)
What are the contraindications when giving Sodium Stibogluconate?
avoid in animals with myocarditis, liver and renal dz
What is Sodium Stibogluconate used to treat?
effective in canine leishmainiasis given IM or SC
Adverse effects of Sodium Stibogluconate?
pain at injection site, delayed muscle pain and joint stiffness
What arsenicals where used for the treatment and prevention of histomoniasis and coccidiosis in turkey and chickens?
carbarsone, nitrosone, and roxarsone
Arsenicals are not safe in what spp?
dogs, ducks and geese
True or False: Benzimidazoles are good antiprotozoan drugs for canine giardia
Yes, true, albendazole, fenbendazole, and febantel
What is Paromomycin and what is it used to treat?
an aminoglycoside antibiotic used for the treatment of luminal amoebiasis, leishmainasis, and cryptosporidiosis
What is the MOA of Paromomycin?
unknown, but suspected to interfer with parasite mitochondria
Side effect of Paromomycin?
renal toxicity
True or False: Paromomycin can be given IM for visceral leishmaniasis in dogs
What drug is used for the treatment of Try. cruzi infection in humans and canines?
What drug is obtained from the CDC to be used for treatment?
What is the side effects of Nifurtimox?
most dogs will develop chronic cardiac dz, which is fatal
What is the most commonly used tetracycline (antiprotozoan)?
What are tetracyclines active against?
amoeboe, mucosal flagellates, piroplasms, and ciliates
What is a similiar characteristic of the members in the Phylum Apicomplexa?
the coccidia, haemosporozoans and piroplasms are obligatory parasites
What type of life cycle does Cryptosporidiosis?
the life cycle of this coccidian is direct
What does C. parvum (coccidian) cause?
intestinal dz in humans and other animals
What is the treatment of a naturally infected cat with cryptosporidial diarrhea and calves?
oral paromomycin
What spp is the only spp that shed Toxoplasmosis gondii oocysts in their feces?
what drugs are used for the treatment and prevention of Feline Intestinal Toxoplasmosis?
Clindamycin, pyrimethamine plus sulfonamides, monensin, and toltrazuril
What is the DRUG OF CHOICE for Disseminated Toxoplasmosis in dogs and cats?
How is clindamycin produced?
it is a semi-synthetic product produced by alteration of lincomycin
True or False: Cats and dogs can be treated with clindamycin by oral and IM injection
False, Cats are only treated orally, dogs are treated orally and IM injection
What is the intermediate host of Canine Neosporosis?
Dogs can be both the intermediate host and the definitive hosts
When is Canine Neosporosis most severe?
most sever when seen in congentially infected puppies
What are the affects of puppies infected with canine neosporosis?
posterior paralysis, encephalitis, polymyocitis, and polyadiculoneuritis
What is used to treat canine neosporosis?
clindamycin orally 2x daily, or DHFR/TS + sulfonamide
What is DHFR/TS?
dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase
What drugs remove the tissue cyst of canine neosporosis?
there are no drugs that remove the tissue cysts
True or False: DHFR/TS + sulfonamides are used to treat canine toxoplasmosis
What is the most important protozoal disease in horses?
Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM)
True or False: EPM is a member of genus Clipocosis and named C. flii
False, EPM is a member of genus Sarcocystis and name S. neurona
What is the definitive host of EPM?
What is the recommended treatment for EPM?
Trimethoprim-sulfonamide(2x daily) combined with pyrimethamine (1x daily) for 30 days after clinical signs have stopped improving
Why should corticosteriods be avoided in patients with EPM?
because it may casue laminitis, only administered in life threatening emergencies
What other compounds can be used in horses with EPM?
antiinflammatory compounds such as flunixin meglumine or phenulbutazone, and dexamethasone
What spp is included in Haemosporozans and what do they cause?
Plasmodium-malaria in humans
Leucocytozoon- only in birds-nonpathogenic
Haemoproteus- nonpathogenic in birds
What agents are included under Canine Hepatozoonosis?
Hepatozoon canis- nonpath.
Hepatozoon americum-
What transmits Hepatozoon americum?
Amblyoma maculatum Gulf cost tick
What signs are seen in dogs with canine hepatozoonosis?
fever, stiffness, gait abnormalities, mucopurulent discharge, and marked leukocytosis
What drug is used for the treatment of H. americanum?
combination of trimethoprim plus sufladiazine (orally) plus clindamycin (orally) plus pyrimethamine for about two weeks
What are piroplasms?
tick transmitted protozoan that includes babesia, theileria, and cystauxzoon
True or False:Babesia, Theileria, and Cystauxzoon are all found in the host blood cell and lymphoid cell
False, Babesia is only found in the host blood cell.
What clinical signs are seen in animals with babesiosis?
hemolytic anemia, anorexia, jaundice, fever, CNS signs, and hemoglobinuria
What drugs are used to treat Babesiosis?
Bvne, Eqne -tx with: diminazene diaceturate, pentamidine isethionate, amicarbalide, imidocarb
Dogs- tx. - diminazene and imidocarb
What drugs can be used as prophylaxis for animals infected with Babesiosis?
tetracyclines or oxy-tetracyclines
What animals are mostly infected with Theileriosis?
mostly in cattle in africa and some wild ruminants in the US
What drugs are used to treat Cytauxzoonosis?
Parvaquone (IM or SC) and Buparvaquone
Which spp are parvaquone and buparvaquone most effective against?
What Clincal signs are seen in animals with EPM?
brain dz (more than spinal dz), muscle atrophy, head tilt, urinary incontinence, constipation
When is the best time to treat EPM?
as soon as EPM is suspected