Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/56

Click to flip

56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How do alkylating agents work?
Cross link DNA

They are NOT phase specific

Cells must be proliferating
Nitrogen Mustard are alkylating agents.

Name the important ones (5)
Mechlorethamine
Cyclophosphamide
Ifosfamide
Melphalan
Chlorambucil
Cyclophosphamide indications (3)
NHL
breast and ovarian carcinoma
also an immunosupressant
Cyclophosphamide SE
hemmorhagic cystitis
myelosuppression
How do you avoid hemorrhagic cystitis?
MESNA and adequate hydration
What is the MOA of busulfan?

Clinical use?

Major SE?
alkylating agent

CML

pulmonary fibrosis and hyperpigmentation
Nitrosoureas are alkylating agents.

Name 4 of them.
Carmustine
Lomustine
Semustine
Streptozocin
Nitrosoureas CI?

Major SE?
Brain tumors (we must preserve the brain)
Streptozocin - pancreaitic islet cell tumor

CNS toxicity
What type of agent is cisplatin?

Indication?

SE?
Alkylating agent

Testicular, bladder, ovary, lung

Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity
What type of agent is cisplatin?

Indication?

SE?
Alkylating agent

Testicular, bladder, ovary, lung

Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity
The Mopp regimen is used for Hodgkins, what comprises MOPP?
Mechlorethamine -alkylating agent
Oncovin (vincristine)- vinca alkaloid
procarbazine - alkylating agent
prednisone
Name an acute SE of procarbazine
disulfiram-like effect
Are antimetabolites phase specific?
Yes, S phase
Methotrexate (MTX)

MOA (be specific)
folic acid analog

inhibits dihydrofolate reductase

thus decreasing dTMP
Whate rescues normal cells from MTX toxicity?
Leucovorin
Neoplastic use of MTX (4)
leukemia (childhood ALL)
lymphoma
sarcoma
choriocarcinoma
Non-Neoplastic use of MTX (4)
psoriasis
RA
abortion
ectopic pregnancy
MTX SE (2)
myelosuprresion (reversible with Luke)

hepatotoxicity (macrovesicular fatty change)
5-FU is an anti-metabolite

MOA?
complexes w/ THF

inhibits thymidyalte synthetase

decreses dTMP
5-FU clinical use? (2)

SE? (2)
metastatic colon cancer
basal cell carcinoma (topical)

myelosuppression
(LUKE will actually increase GI toxicity so never use)
photosensitivity
What is cytarabine (Ara-C)?

MOA?
an anitmetabolite

pyrimidine analog

inhibits DNA polymerase
Cytarabine clinical use?

SE?
AML (w/ daunorubicin)

Leukopenia
Thrombocytopenia
Megaloblastic anemia
6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)

Clinical use (be specific)?

SE?
leukemia (main. of child ALL; not useful with CLL)
NHL

myelosuppresson
cholestatic jaundice
What increases 6-MP toxicity and why?
allopurinol

both metabolized by xanthine oxidase
Name some anitmetabolites used against hairy cell leukemia (3)
Pentostatin
Fludarabine
Cladribine
Name two non-neoplastic agents that are related to purine analogs and their clinical uses?
Azathiopurine - immunosuprression w/ transplants

Allopurinol - hyperuricemia/gout
(an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase)
When is allopurinaol useful in neoplastic disease?
tumor lysis syndrome
(rapid cell lysis leads to release of purines which could lead to renal stones/failure)
Vincristine and Vinblastine
(Vinca alkaloids)

phase specfic?

MOA?
M phase

bind tubulin and inhibit MT polymerization
Clinical uses of Vinblastine and Vincristine
MOPP for lymphoma
Wilms
choriocarcinoma
SE of vincristine? (3)

SE of vinblastine?
neurotoxicity
peripheral neuropathy
paralytic ileus

myelosuppression
Etoposide phase?

MOA?
G2 phase

inhibits topoisomerase II thus double strand breaks remain
Etoposide use?
Oat cell carcinoma of lung and prostrate
testicular carcinoma
Paclitaxel (Taxol) phase?

source?

MOA?
M phase

Yew tree

stabilizes MT in mititic apparatus thus preventing depolymerization
What is the only antibiotic neoplastic that is phase specific?
Bleomycin
(G2 and M phase)
Dactinomycin (Actinomycin D) MOA?

uses? (4)
intercalates and inhibits RNA poly

Wilms
Ewings
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Kaposi
Doxorubucin (Adriamycin) MOA?

SE?
intercalates and form strand breaks

Cardiotoxicity
(rubicin sisters will break your heart)
Clinical uses of Doxorubucin? (6)
Hodgkins
myelomas
sarcomas
solid tumors (breast, kidney, lung)
Hodgkins can be treated with the ABVD regimen which is?
Adriamycin (doxorubucin)
Bleomycin
Vinblastine
Dacarbazine
Bleomycin MOA?

Use?

SE?
intercalates and causes strand breaks

testicular cancer

pulmonary fibrosis
Name a chemotherapeutic agent increases the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin?
Mitomycin
Prednisone MOA?

Use?
suppress mitosis and possibly induce apoptosis

MOPP
CLL
breast carcimoma (decreases estrogen)
Prednisone SE (9)
Cushing-like symptoms
immunosuprression
cataracts
acne
osteoporosis
HTN
peptic ulcers
hyperglycemia
psychosis
Use of hydroxyprogesterone, medoxyprogesterone, and megestrol? (3)
endometrial carcimoma
breast cancer
prostrate cancer
Use of androgens (testosterone and fluoxymesterone)?
estrogen receptor positive breast carcinoma (only in pre and post-meno)
Flutamide and bicalutamide MOA?

use?
androgen receptor antagonist

prostate cancer
Leuprolide and goserelin MOA?

Use?
analog of LH-RH and blocks GnRH thus decreasing androgen synthesis

prostrate carcinoma
ethinyl estradiol, DES, estramustine use?
advanced prostrate carcinoma
Tamoxifen/Raloxifene MOA?

use?
partial agonist of estrogen receptor

breast cancer
Tamoxifen/Raloxifene MOA?

use?
partial agonist of estrogen receptor

breast cancer
Tamoxifen/Raloxifene SE? (2)
induce endometrial carcinoma
hot flashes
anastrozole MOA?

use?
inhibits aromatase

tamoxifen R breast carcinoma
IFN use (3)

SE?
hairy cell leukemia
Karposi
genital warts

flu-like syndrome
adesleukin is what?

use? (2)
SE?
IL-2

metastatic melanoma
renal cell carcinoma

severe HTN and cardiovascular toxicity (life threatening)
L-Asparaginase use and w/ what other agents?
ALL

vincristine
prednisone
hydroxyurea MOA?

phase?

use?
inhibits ribonucleotide reductase thus deoxyribonucleotides cant be produced

S phase

CML
Topotecan and Irinotecan MOA?

use (different for each one?
inhibit topoisomerase I

used after 1st line treatment failure for:
topotecan - ovarian carcinoma
irinotecan - colorectal carcinoma