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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How is Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmitted?
Coughing and Sneezing
Where is the initial TB infection?
The lung
What happens after the initial infection in most cases?
Immune system facilitates control by increasing the ability of phagocytes to suppress multiplication
What happens after the initial infection in some cases?
Immune system fails to control the infection and tuberculosis develops
What happens to the lung in TB?
Necrosis and cavitation of lung tissue
Becomes caseous (cheese-like)
Treatment of TB is always done with one drug.
T or F
False
Two or more drugs are used
What is the definite diagnosis of TB?
Chest radiograph
Microbiologic culture of sputum
What is the cause of the emergence of TB resistance?
Inadequate drug therapy
A patient is positive for TB in sputum culture. What is the next step?
Until drug sensitivity tests are available, drug selection is based on the patient and the community
What is the typical therapy for TB?
Four drug regimen (2 months)
Isoniazid
Rifampin
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol

Continuation phase (4 months)
Isoniazid
Rifampin
What is DOT?
(Direct Observation Therapy) is the administration of each dose in the presence of an observer
What is the TST?
(Tuberculin Skin Test) is the intradermal injection of Purified Protein Derivative (derived from M. tuberculosis)
What is a positive TST?
Read 48-72 hours after test; region of induration (hardness) around injection site
What is the drug of choice for latent TB?
Isoniazid
Isoniazid is _____ to mycobacteria that are active but ____ to mycobacteria that are not dividing.
Bacteriacidal
Bacteriastatic
What are the adverse effects of Isoniazid?
Peripheral Neuropathy
Hepatotoxicity
What is the most common side effect of Isoniazid and what can be done to improve it?
Symmetric paresthesias (neuropathy) tingling and numbing of hands and feet

Administering pyridoxine (vitamin B6)
What is the greatest risk factor for hepatotoxicity with Isoniazid?
Advancing Age
What are the drug interactions of Isoniazid?
Phenytonin
Alcohol, Rifampin, and Pyrazinamide (Liver damage)
What is the action of Rifampin?
Inhibits bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Bactericidal)
What is the use of Rifampin?
TB
Leprosy
What are the adverse effects of Rifampin?
Hepatotoxicity
Discoloration of Body Fluids (red-orange discoloration to body fluids)
What drugs are similar to Rifampin?
Rifapentine
Rifabutin
Pyrazinamide is bacteriostatic to M. tuberculosis.
T or F
False
bactericidal
What are the adverse effects of Pyrazinamide?
Hepatotoxicity (increases risk with use of rifampin and/or isoniazid)
Ethambutol is bacteriostatic.
T or F
True
What are the adverse effects of Ethambutol?
Optic Neuritis (Blurred vision, constriction of visual field, and color disturbances)
What is the other name for leprosy?
Hansen's Disease
What drug is weakly bactericidal to M. leprae?
Dapsone
What are the main drug interactions with Rifampin?
Oral contraceptives, warfarin, PIs, and NNRTIs
What is the treatment for Mycobacterium avium?
Ethambutol
Azithromycin
Clarithromycin