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21 Cards in this Set

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Block cell wall synthesis by inhibition of peptidoglycan CROSS LINKING
penicillin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin, imipenem, aztreonam, cephalosporins
Block peptidoglycan SYNTHESIS
bacitracin, vancomycin, cycloserine
Disrupt bacterial/fungal cell MEMBRANES
polymyxins
Disrupt FUNGAL cell MEMBRANES
amphotericin B, nystatin, fluconazole/azoles
Block nucleotide synthesis
sulfonamides, trimethoprim
Block DNA topoisomerases
quinolones
Block mRNA synthesis
rifampin
Block protein synthesis at 30S ribosome (buy AT 30)
aminoglycosides, tetracycline
Block protein synthesis at 50S ribosome (CCELL at 50)
chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin (macrolides), linezolid, lincomycin, *streptogramins (-pristin)
Which antimicrobials are bactericidal?
penicillin, cephalosporins, vancomycin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, metronidazole
penicillin G is given ___, penicillin V is given ___.
IV, oral
How do penicillins work? (3 mechanisms)
block peptidoglycan cross linking, bind penicillin-binding-proteins, activate autolytic enzymes in bacteria
Penicillin is bactericidal for which groups of bacteria?
G+ cocci, G+ rods, G- cocci, spirochetes, oral anaerobes
* not penicillinase resistant!
What are 2 toxicities of penicillin?
hypersensitivity, hemolytic anemia
Which penicillin derivatives are used for S. aureus? (They are penicillinase resistant.)
methicillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin
What is MRSA? How?
methicillin-resistant S. aureus (use vancomycin), has altered PBP target site
What are 2 toxicities of methicillin?
hypersensitivity, interstitial nephritis
What can you use ampicillin and amoxicillin for?
wide spectrum penicillin: Listeria, groups A (pyogenes) & B (agalactiae) strep, enterococci, S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, Proteus, Salmonella, E. coli
What is the penicillinase inhibitor that can be given with ampicillin/amoxicillin to enhance their spectrum?
clavulinic acid
Toxicities of ampicillin/amoxicillin:
hypersensitivity, ampicillin RASH, pseudomembranous colitis (recall: C. dificile overgrowth)
Which extended spectrum penicillins kill Pseudomonas and G- rods?
ticarcillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin (use with clavulinic acid!)