• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/28

Click to flip

28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the three tissues that have large amount of histimine
skin
respiratory
GI
Where is histimine stored?
mast cells and basophils
How is histime metabolized/
n-methylation + oxidation in the brain

oxidative deamination outside the brain.
What are the effects of histimine?
smooth mm contraction
vasodilation
mucas production
platelet aggreagation
complement activation
eosinohphill and neutrolphil chemotactic factors


which causes
hay fever
asthma
rash
anaphalaxis


histime is not the only compound in the body that causes these symptoms.
what is the major cause of histimine release?
antibody antigen response in allergic reactions.(main)

any chemical that cause tissues damage can release histimine

organic bases
-morphine
-d-tubocurare
What are the histimine receptors and where are they found?
H1
found in skin, smooth mm, endothelium, and brain.
H2
gastric mucosa, and heart and vessels
H3
CNS
H4
bone marrow hemopoetic
What type of receptor is H1?
G protein
activates phospholipase c(PLC)
which activates IP3 which releases Ca which binds calmodulin to activate myosin light chain kinase.
What type of receptor is H2?
G protein
upregulates CAMP
What are the major effects of H1 activations?
Smooth muscle contraction in the bronchi

vaso dilation and decreased BP
What are the major effects of H2 activations
positive chemotropic and inotropic effects on the heart
How does H1 lead to vasodilation?
activates the endothelial derived relaxation factor to release NO
Where does H1 lead to vasoconstriction?
in the veins because there is no NO pathway in veins only venules therefore they contract bc of the myosic light chain kinase effects.
What does H1 do to vascular permiability?
increases it allowing flow out of the vessels and causing swelling.
What is the wheel and flare response caused by H1
When tissue is damaged there is a primary vasodilation then H1 activates the nerves endings to produces vasodilation in a wider area then it produces swelling by increaseing vascular permeabilty.
What are the effects of diphenhydramine?(benadryl)
antihistimine
anticholinergic
sedation
antimotionsickness
dimenhydrinate(dramamine) has what effects?
antihistimine
anticholinergic
sedation
antimotionsickness
Promethazine(phenergin) has what effects?
antihistimine
anticholinergic
sedation
antimemetic(antinausea)
Chlorpheniramine has what effects
antihistime
slight anticholinergic
slight sedation less than other 1st gen antihistimines ***
common component in cold medicine.
Fexofenadine(allegra) has what effects
least sedating antihistime 2nd generation
cetirazine(zirtec) has what effect?
antihistimine fastest onset possibly sedating 2nd gen
loratidine is also known as what?
claritin
2nd gen antihistimine
desloratidine is also known as what?
clarinex
2nd gen antihistimine
what are some differences btw the 1st and 2nd gen antihistimines?
1st gen are much more sedating
1st gen dont last very long 4-24h as oppose to 24h+ in 2nd gen
2nd gen usually require only once a day dosing
both are usually metabolized by CYP3A4
What are the antihistimines used for/
allergic rhinitis, conjunctivititis, and uticaria(hiives)
What the first gen antihistimes better at than the second gen?
drying up runny nose because of the presence of the anticholinegic properties.
how is olipatadine used?
topically in eye drops for allergic conjucntivitis
how is azelastine used?
topically as nasal spray.
what are the side effects of the antihistimines?
sedation
fatigue
poor eyehand corridination
GI irratation
dry mouth,nose,throat
blurred vision
increased glaucoma

all these only seen in the 1st gen.