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49 Cards in this Set

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specific
Specific immune response involves production of _________ antibodies (Ab) against specific antigens (Ag).
2 weeks
How long does it take for a vaccine to make the body immune?
immunogen
An ___________ is any substance that when introduced into the body STIMULATES the production of specific antibodies.
antigen
An _________ is any substance that COMBINES with those specific antibodies.
antigen
immunogen
The term antigen is often used to mean both an _______ and and an _________.
antigen/immunogen
characteristics: Foreign/non-self matter

e.g. microorganisms, toxins, foreign tissues

chemically: complex molecules

eg. protein or polysaccharide
Hapten/Partial antigen
Has reactivity (combines with specific antibodies) withouth immunogenicity (stimulating production of specific antibodies) unless bound to a carrier.
Antigenic Determinant/Epitope
Antibodies are not formed against a whole organism but specific regions or chemical groups.
Nature of antibodies/immunoglobulins
A protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to an immunogen/antigen and is capable of combining with that antigen.
Gamma globulins
part of nature of antibodies/immunoglobulins

From separation of blood proteins by electrophoresis.

part of artificial acquired passive immunity
Antibody structure
2 heavy chains
2 light chains
Heavy and light both have "C" and "V" portions.

Fab portion
Fc portion
V portion
is different for each kind of Ab and gives the Ab its specificity. Ag binding occurs here.
C portion
Constant for each class of Ab.
Fab
Antigen binding fragment

the 2 arms
Fc
Crystallizable fragment

The "trunk" of the antibody. Contains the complement binding site.
IgG
IgM
IgA
IgD
IgE
What are the classes of antibodies?
IgG
Monomer of serum antibodies

most abundant in serum antibodies

can cross the placenta: protect fetus and newborn.

fixes complement

Enhance phagocytosis

neutralize toxin and viruses
IgM
Pentamer of serum antibodies

Fixes complement in the blood, lymph, on B cells.

Agglutinates microbes

First Ab produced in response to infection.
IgA
Dimer of serum antibodies

Main Ab in mucus secretions (which is the 1st line of defense), and breast milk.

Mucosal protection.
IgD
Monomer of serum antibodies

In blood and lymph

Receptor on B cells.
IgE
Monomer of serum antibodies

On mast cells and basophils, in blood.

Allergic reactions

Lysis of parasitic worms

These do more harm than good
Clonal Selection
Antibody Response (B cells)

1' Response
2'Response/Anamnestic Response
1' Response

antibody response (B cells)
Contact with Ag for the first time.

1. Plasma cells -> Antibodies
2. Memory cells are formed to that specific immunogen
2'Response/Anamnestic Response

antibody response (B cells)
Memory cell activated -> Plasma cells -> Abs formed quickly and in large numbers.
Specific host defenses
What is a 3rd line of defense?
Cell-mediated immunity

Dendritic cells
Involves interaction of macrophages and specific T lymphocytes (T-cells)

Pathogens entering the G.I. or respiratory tract pass through: peyers patches which contain antibody and ________ ______.
Dendritic cells
act as antigen-presenting cells.
effector
T cells differentiate into _________ T cells when stimulated by an Ag. Some _________ T cells become memory cells.
superantigens
__________ can bypass the specificity of the cells.
CD4
cells infected by HIV
Helper T cells
Cytotoxic T cells
Suppressor T cells
Delayed Hypersensitivtiy T cells
What are the 4 different kinds of T cells?
Helper T cells
CD4, Th

generals
gas pedal
Cytotoxic T cells
CD8, Tc

Destroy target cells with perforin.
Suppressor T cells
Ts
Turns off immune response when Ag is no longer present.

brake pedal
Th1
Activate cells related to cell-mediated immunity
Th2
Activate B cells to IgM and IgE.
Delayed Hypersensitivity T cells
Td
memory cells
Associated with allergic reaction, transplant rejection, and tuberculin skin test.

look for cancer cells.
Activated macrophages
Natural killer cells
T-dependent antigens
T-independent antigens
Antibody-dependent Cell mediated cytotoxicity
What are the nonspecific cells associated with specific host defenses?
Activated macrophages
Macrophages stimulated by ingesting Ag or by cytokines.
Natural killer cells
Lymphocytes that destroy virus-infected cells, and tumors. (nonspecific)
T-dependent antigens
The B cells response is dependent on T cells before they can be activated.

Certain B cells can only interact when binding with T cells.
T-independent antigens
It has to bind to a certain amount of epitopes on B cells before it can be activated.
Self-tolerance
The immune system DOES NOT normally attack self tissues or compounds.
Clonal deletion
During embryonic development lymphocytes with antigen receptors for molecules present in the body are destroyed.
Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC)
What is another word for Human Leukocyte Antigen Complex (HLA)?
Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC)
Glycoproteins in plasma membrane that enable the immune system to distinguish self from nonself.
Class I MHC
On all nucleated cells.

All cells have a marker that lets your body know that it is part of self.
Class II MHC
On macrophages and B cells.
Agglutination
Opsonization
Neutralization
Activation of complement
Inflammation
Antibody-dependent
What are the results of Ag-Ab binding?