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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are glucocorticoids used for in cancer?
Manage complications of cancer and cancer therapy
What is the standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer?
Androgen deprivation
What does androgen deprivation do to the prostate cancer?
Slows disease progression but does not cure cancer
Often progresses after 2 years
What does gonadotropin-releasing hormone (LH) do to androgen production?
Suppresses androgen production
What is the prototypic GnRH for prostatic cancer?
Leuprolide
How does leuprolide for treatment of prostatic cancer work?
Initially causes an increase in production of androgens Pituitary becomes desensitized
Production of androgens declines
What is the administration of leuprolide for prostatic cancer called?
Chemical Castration
What are the adverse effects of leuprolide?
Hot Flashes
Risk of osteoporosis
What are the three androgen receptor blockers?
Flutamide
Bicalutamide
Nilutamide
When are androgen blockers used?
In combination with surgical or chemical castration
What are the common adverse effects of Flutamide?
Gynecomastia
Antiestrogens work by ______ while aromatase inhibitors _____.
Blocking receptors for estrogen
Blocking estrogen production
In the treatment of breast cancer, to use a antiestrogen or an aromatase inhibitor the cancer must be _____.
Estrogen-receptor positive (ER positive)
What is the pure antiestrogen?
Fulvestrant
What are the mixed effect antiestrogens?
Tamoxifen
Toremifene
Raloxifene
How does tamoxifen work?
Block receptors for estrogen
When is tamoxifen used?
After mastectomy
Treatment of Metastatic Disease
What are the adverse effects of tamoxifen?
Hot Flushes
Fluid Retention
Vaginal Discharge
Menstrual Irregularities
Thromboembolic effects
Endometrial Cancer
What is the difference between Raloxifene and Tamoxifen?
Raloxifene does not have a risk of endometrial cancer
How do aromatase inhibitors work?
Block production of estrogen from androgenic precursors
Do not block production by ovaries
Who can use an aromatase inhibitor?
Post-menopausal women
What are the adverse effects of aromatase inhibitors?
Increase risk of fracture
What is the prototypic aromatase inhibitor?
Anastrozole
What drug is a monoclonal antibody indicated for IV therapy of metastatic breast cancer?
Trastuzumab
How does Trastuzumab work?
Antagonist at the HER2 receptor that regulates cell growth
What are the adverse effects of Transtuzumab?
Cardiotoxicity
What do biologic response modifiers do?
Alter hosts response to cancer
What Biologic response modifier is used for solid tumors?
Interferon Alfa
What benefit does Interferon Alfa have against cancer?
Enhancement of host immune response
Direct anti-proliferative effects
What is the action of Targeted anticancer drugs?
Bind specific targets that drive tumor growth
How does EGFR-Tyrosine Inhibitors work?
Binding of an agonist to EGFR activates TK which activates pathways of cell proliferation
What is the action of Cetuximab?
Antagonist at the receptor for EGFR
What are the actions of Erlotinib and Gefitinib?
Work inside the cell to inhibit TK directly
What type of cancer is Cetuximab used for?
Colorectal Cancer
What are the adverse effects of Cetuximab?
Severe infusion reactions- shock
Acne-like rash
Interstital lung disease
What is the action of CD20 antibodies?
CD20 is in cell membrane of B cells
Trigger an immune attack against the B cell itself
What CD20 antibodies have a linked radioactive compound that causes radiation damage?
Ibritumomab
Tositumomab
What CD20 antibody works by immune response only?
Rituximab
What are the adverse effects of Rituximab?
Severe Infusion Reactions- shock
Tumor Lysis Syndrome- Acute Renal Failure
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
HBV reactivation
How do angiogensis inhibitors work?
Suppress formation of new blood cells and deprive solid tumors the expanding blood supply needed for growth
What is the prototypic angiogenesis inhibitor?
Bevacizumab
What are the adverse effects of Bevacizumab?
GI perforation
Poor wound healing
Pulmonary Hemorrhage
Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events
How do proteasome inhibitors work?
Cause proteins to accumulate in the cell and can cause apoptosis and increase sensitivity to anticancer agents
What drug is a proteasome inhibitor?
Bortezomib