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47 Cards in this Set

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What are the three antibiotics related to the inhibition of cell wall synthesis?
Penicillin cephalosporin and polypeptide antibiotics
What is penicillin effective against?
gram (+) bacterial cells.
What are the antibiotics that are derivatives of penicillin?
Amoxacillin
oxacillin
menthicillin
ampacillin
What feature does penicillin have?
B-lactamase ring
What are the two main forms of penicillin?
Penicillin G which can be injected and penicillin V which can be taken orally
What is important about amoxacillin?
extended spectrum antibiotic, is effective against gram - and +. Is still susceptible to b-lactamase.
what are the features of menthicillin?
It is not used in the United States anymore because there is more than a 20% resistance to it. MRSA. It is b-lactamse resistant.
What are the features of potassium clavulanate?
a natural micriobial inhibito of b-lactamse. It is often combined with amoxacillin
What are the features of the cepholasporins?
They are from the cepholasporin spp. family, they are similar to penicillins in structure, they are resistant to b-lactamse, but are susceptible to some cepholasporinases, and they are more broad than penicillins.
What are the polypeptide antibiotics?
bacitracin and vancomysin
what are the feature of bacitracin?
effective primarily against gram (+), devired from bacillus spp. used for cuts and abrasions, natural microbial polypeptide
what are the features of vancomysin?
It is an antibiotic used against MRSA infection. Very narrow spectrum. devrived from streptomyces spp. natural polypeptide.
What are the antimycobacterials?
Isoniazid
Ethambutol
What are the features of isoniazid?
A fully synthetic drugs that inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acid, allowing the antibiotic to penetrate the cell with MACs
What are the features of ethambutol?
a synthetic drug that prohibits the insertion of mycolic acid into the cell wall. Used in conjunction with isoniazid to reduce chances of resistance.
What are the protein synthesis inhibitors (translation inhibitors)?
chloramphenicol
aminoglycides
tetracyclines
macrolides
streptogramins
oxazolidinones
What are the features of chloramphenicol?
a broad spectrum antibiotic.
all synthetically made
very cheap to produce
naturally produced by streptomyces spp.
highly toxic to host cell-suppression of bone marrow activity-immune response
What are the aminoglycosides?
streptomycin
gentamicin
What are the features of streptomysin?
Important in the fight against TB
highly toxic-hearing loss, kidney damage
rapid development of resistance
What is the feature of gentimicin?
it is important against pseudomonas infections
What are the features of the tetracyclines?
broad spectrum translation inhibitor
produced by streptomyces spp.
helps against gram (-) and (+) also the rickettsias and the chlmydias.
highly destructive against normal flora, which can lead to superinfections, mainly candida albicans (yeats infection)
What are the different macrolides?
Erythoromycin
Azithromycin
What are the features of erythromycin?
gets trapped in the LPS of gram (-)
only effective against gram (+) bacteria
can be a alternative for penicillin
what are the features of azithromycin?
broader activiyt spectrum than erythromycin
important for fighting STDS
costly
what are the features of the streptogramins?
semisynthetic
developed in response to Vancomysin resistant gram (+)-strep, staph, enterics
costly
high toxicity
What are the features of the oxalidinones?
developed in response to VRE and MRSA
only effective against gram (+)
totally synthetic (slower resistance)
What antibiotic disrupt the plasma membrane?
bacitracin
polymyxn B
neomycin
what are the features of bactiracin, polymyxin and neomycin?
They are often over the counter
are found in ointments
polymyxin b is specifically for gram (-) like pseudomonas aeruginosa
bacitracin is effective against gram (+)
neomycin is broad spectrum with high toxicity
What antibiotics inhibit the synthesis of nucleic acids?
Rifamycins
Fluoroquinolones
what are the features of rifamycins?
they inhibit transcription
most important for helping with mycobacterium tb
structually similar to macrolides
penetrate host cells well
semi synthetic
commonly used by HIV/AIDS patients.
What are the features of the fluoroquinolones?
ciproflaxin-which is best against gram (-)
broad spectrum
cipro helps with:
UTIS
anthrax
enterics
lower respiratory tract infections
What are the antibiotics that inhibit metabolite synthesis?
sulfanamides (sulfa drugs)
what do the fungal drugs target?
fungal sterols
fungal cell walls
what is only found in fungi?
ergosterols
what are the antifungal drugs?
polyenes
allylamines
azoles
What are the features of polyenes?
it binds to ergosterol and causes cell well permeability
ex) amphotericin B effective against systemic mycoses infections
what are the features of azoles and allylamines?
synthetic drugs
inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis
ex) myconazole-used to fight cutaneous mycoses infections (topical)
what drugs target fungal cell walls?
Echinocandins-which
What are the targets for antiviral drugs?
attatchment
penetration
uncoating
DNA/RNA syntheis
maturation
What are the HIV/AIDS drugs?
reverse transcriptase inhibitors
protease inhibitors
What are the features of the HIV/AIDS drugs?
Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors- inhibitos reverse transcriptase which is required for antriviruses to reproduce
protease inhibitors-inhibit protease to make new HIV proteins
What drugs are used for influenza?
amantadine
rimantadine
These inhibit uncoating...because of resistance these were not used during the 2006-2007 flu season.
Zanamivir(relenza)
oseltamivir(tamaflu)
inhibits neuraminidase which is essential for virions release from a cell.
What are the interferon based drugs?
interferon-a-used to combat viral hepatitis
imiquimod-a drug that that stimulates the production of interferons
explain abx resistance in pseudomonas aeruginosa
some strains are CIPr
some are IPMr-when it has a decreased expression of OprD, which is the only way impenin can get into the cell
What is transformation?
when naked DNA is shared between to bacterial cells
What is transduction?
When one phage connects to a bacterial cell, takes some of its DNA and then goes onto another bacterial cell and shares it
what is conjugation?
when DNA is shared via a sex pilus.