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25 Cards in this Set

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- NUCLEIC ACID SYNTH
- Binds to A subunit of DNA gyrase (nick-sealer)
- blocking replication fork and introducing (+) supercoils.
- Gram + and Gram -
- Resistance due to change in subunit structure or cell wall
Quinolones (Cipro, Norflox, Nalidixic)
- NUCLEIC ACID SYNTH
- Binds to B subunit of DNA gyrase (binds ATP)
- Blocks DNA replication
- Gram +, Flavobac and Proteus
Novobiocin
- NUCLEIC ACID SYNTH
- Binds to RNA Pol, blocks mRNA synth by blocking 1st bond
- G+ and TB
- can cause rashes and jaundice
Rifampin/Rifamycin (Streptovaricin)
- NUCLEIC ACID SYNTH
- inhibits synth of nucleotide precursors
- PABA analog (bacteriostatic)
- Gram + and Gram -
- useful with UTI, salmonella, bronchitis
- Synergist with Trimeth.
Sulfonamide
- NUCLEIC ACID SYNTH
- inhibits synth of nucleotide precursors
- AHP-FA analog
- Gram + and Gram -
- useful with UTI, salmonella, bronchitis
- Synergist with Sulfona.
Trimethoprim
- NUCLEIC ACID
- nitroreductase generates N radicals that damage DNA
- can cause peripheral neuropathy
- Protozoa & Anaerobes
Metronidizole/ Nitroimidazole
- PROTEIN SYNTH
- Bind 50S subunit and inhibit peptide bond formation
- subclass of macrolids
- can cause pseudomembranous colitis (C. diff overgrowth)
Lincosamides (Clindamycin)
- PROTEIN SYNTH
- Bind 23S (in 50S) to block translocation
- macrolid, broad spectrum, bacteriostatic
- GI side effects
- Resistance mediated by plasmid and alt in 23S
Erythromycin
- PROTEIN SYNTH
- prevent aminoacyl tRNA from entering A site on ribosome (30S)
- GI side effects, abn bone devl, teeth staining
- broad spectrum, bacteriostatic (Mycopl, chlam, ricket)
- TN10 resistance (efflux)
Tetracycline
- PROTEIN SYNTH
- Binds to 50S, blocks peptidyltransferase
- broad spec, bacteriostatic, typhoid, meningitis
- Anaplastic Anemia and Grey Baby Syndrome
- Resistance via acetyltransferase enzyme
Chloramphenicol
- PROTEIN SYNTH
- Bind 30S and block formation of 70S complex, aberrant protein or misreading of mRNA
- ototoxic and nephrotoxi
- bactericidal G+ and G-
- Resistance via changes in cell wall permeability, ribosomal target site or modifying enzymes
Aminoglycosides (Tobramycin, Kanamycin, Neomycin, Streptomycin, Spectinomycin, Gentamicin)
- PLASMA MEMBRANE
- Cause ion leakage and cell lysis
- nephrotoxic so ONLY topical or wound irrigation
- OTC ointment combo with bacitracin
- Gram - (NOT proteus)
Polymyxin (B & E)
- CELL WALL SYNTH
- blocks L-ala racemase and D-ala D-ala synthetase
- TB
D-cycloserine
- CELL WALL SYNTH
- blocks regeneration of BP (recharging)
- G+ and Neiss (NOT G-)
- Nephrotoxic so ONLY topical
- OTC ointment combined with polymyxin
Bacitracin
- CELL WALL SYNTH
- blocks transfer of DSP to PTG chain
- ototoxic and nephrotoxic
- TB, and MDR G+ strains
Vancomycin (Ristocetin: not clinically used b/c too toxic)
- CELL WALL SYNTH
- disrupts mycolic acid synth
- used with rifampin, Dcycloserine and/or streptomycin against TB and other acid-fast MDR strains
Isoniazid (INH)
- CELL WALL SYNTH
- blocks carboxy- and transpeptidases in PTG x-linking
- Acid labile, Beta lactamase sensitive
- G+ only (not staph aur)
Penicillin G
- CELL WALL SYNTH
- blocks carboxy- and transpeptidases in PTG x-linking
- Acid stable, less sensitive to Beta lactamase
- G+ only (not staph aur)
Penicillin V (natural PCN)
- CELL WALL SYNTH
- blocks carboxy- and transpeptidases in PTG x-linking
- acid stable, Beta lactamase resistant
Methicillin/Oxacillin
- CELL WALL SYNTH
- blocks carboxy- and transpeptidases in PTG x-linking
- broad spectrum against G+ and G-, but lactamase sensitive
- can cause pseudomembraneous colitis in kids
Ampicillin/Carbenicillin
- CELL WALL SYNTH
- Blactam ring + 5 thiazolidine ring
- suicide substrate binds PBPs
- bacteriocidal only on growing cells (autolysins)
- Resistance via beta lactamases, modified PBP, changed porins or non-growing cells
- can cause immediate hypersensitivity reactions
- benzylPCN can be neurotoxic in high does
General Penicillin Info
- CELL WALL SYNTH
- inhibit beta lactamase
- alone are ineffective Abx, act synergistically with PCNs
Clavulanic Acid/Sulbactam
- CELL WALL SYNTH
- B lactam ring + S ring
- 3 generations
1st: narrow G+
2nd: expanded G+ some G-
3rd: broad (incl pseudomonads)
Cephalosporins
(1st: cephalexin, cephapirin, cephazolin)
(2nd: Cefoxitin, Cefuroxime)
(3rd: Oxocephalosporins, Cefixime, Cefotaxime)
- CELL WALL SYNTH
- blocks creation of UDP-NAM in cytosol
Phosphomycin
NUCLEIC ACID SYNTH
- Binds to RNA Pol, blocks mRNA synth by blocking elongation step
Streptolydigin (Actinomycin also, but too toxic)