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41 Cards in this Set

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What is the MOA of Penicillin?
Inhibits cell wall synthesis; bactericidal
What are the Penicillinase-resistant penicillins?
Methicillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin
What are penicillinase-resistant penicillins used for?
S. aureus (except MRSA)
What are the anti-pseudomonal penicillins?
Ticarcillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin
When is Aztreonam used?
Against gram-negative rods in penicillin-allergic patients and those with renal insufficiency who cannot tolerate aminoglycosides
What is the DOC for Enterobacter?
Imipenem/cilastatin
What is Vancomycin used for?
Serious gram-positive multidrug-resistant organisms (S. aureus and C. difficile)
What are toxicities are seen with Vancomycin?
Nephrotoxicity, Ototoxicity, Thrombophlebitis (NOT) and 'red-man/neck syndrome" (from fast infusion)
What are the Aminoglycosides? Used for? Toxicities?
'Mean' GNATS canNOT kill anaerobes.

Gentamicin, Neomycin, Amikacin, Tobramycin, Streptomycin;

Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, and teratogen

Not useful for anaerobes
What drugs should be avoided in pregnancy?
SAFE Moms Take Really Good Care:
Sulfonamides
Aminoglycosides
Fluoroquinolones
Erythromycin
Metronidazole
Tetracyclines
Ribavirin
Griseofulvin
Chloramphenicol
What are the macrolides?
Erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin
What is the MOA of macrolides?
They inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50s ribosomal subunit; bacteriostatic.
What are macrolides used for?
URIs, pneumonias, STDs
MOA of chloramphenicol?
inhibits 50S peptidyltransferase. Bacteriostatic
Use of chloramphenicol?
Meningitis (H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae)
Toxicities of Chloramphenicol?
Anemia, aplastic anemia, gray baby syndrome
MOA of Clindamycin?
Blocks peptide bond formation at 50S ribosomal subunit. Bacteriostatic
Use of Clindamycin?
Treats anaerobes above the diaphragm
Toxicities of Clindamycin?
Pseudomembranous colitis (C. difficile overgrowth), fever, diarrhea
What drug will cause interactions in G6PD deficient individuals? What reaction?
Sulfonamides - causes hemolysis in G6PD deficient (commonly African Americans)
What drug is commonly used with sulfonamides? Why?
Trimethoprim; because sulfonamides and Trimethoprim inhibit two steps of the same pathway (folic acid creation/utilization)
What are the adverse effects of Trimethoprim?
Megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia
What drug is used for anaerobic infections below the diaphragm?
Metronidazole
What drugs are used for H. pylori?
Bismuth, amoxicillin (or tetracycline) and metronidazole
What is the MOA of fluoroquinolones?
Inhibit DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II). Bactericidal
What are the anti-TB drugs?
Streptomycin, Pyrazinamide, Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol
MOA of Isoniazid?
Decreases synthesis of mycolic acids
MOA of Rifampin?
Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
Toxicities of Rifampin?
Drug interactions (P-450); Red/orange body fluid; rapid resistance if used alone
What drug is used for prophylaxis of Gonorrhea?
Ceftriazone
Prophylaxis for endocarditis with surgical or dental procedures?
Penicillins
Prophylaxis for history of recurrent UTIs?
TMP-SMX
Prophylaxis for Syphilis?
Benzathine penicillin G
Prophylaxis for Meningococcal infection?
Rifampin
What drugs cross the BBB only in Meningitis?
Penicillin, 3rd generation cephalosporins
What drugs readily cross the BBB?
Chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracyclines
What drugs do not cross the BBB?
1st and 2nd gen. cephalosporins, clindamycin
What drugs bind to the 50s ribosomal subunit?
Erythromycin (macrolides), chloramphenicol, clindamycin
When is the Ampicillin Rash seen?
When ampicillin/amoxicillin is given to a pt that is infected with CMV or EBV.
What adverse reactions can Imipenem-cilastin cause?
Seizures
How are tetracycline and doxycycline eliminated?
Tetracyclilne: renal
Doxycycline: hepatic