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46 Cards in this Set

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MIC
minimum inhibitory concentration
MBC
minimum bacteriocidal concentration
quantitative requirement for MBC
>100 decrease in viable cells after 24 hours
If the action of the drug can be stopped by removing the drugs it is...?
bacteristatic
If the action of the drug cannot be stoppedy by removing the drug it is...?
bactericidal
Combination of bacteristatics and bactericidals
Problem: cidals work by kills growing bacteria and statics inhibit this before cidals can work.
Cell wall antibiotics
Fosfomycin
Bacitracin
Vancomycin
Penicillin
Fosfomycin
Cell wall inhibitor
Inhibits synthesis of peptidoglycan precursor
Inhibits synthesis of peptidogylcan precursors
Fosfomycin
Bacitracin
Cell wall inhibitor
Inhibits lipid carrier recycling
Topical application only
Inhibits lipid carrier for cell wall synth. Topical application only
Bacitracin
Vancomycin
Cell wall inhibitor
Binds to D-Ala-D-Ala and inhibits incorporation into the cell wall.
Too big for gm-
Important for Staph aureus
Binds to D-ala-D-ala to prevent peptidoglycan incorporation
Vancomycin
Important for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staph aureus
Vancomycin
Beta-lactams (penicillin)
Cell wall inhibitor
inhibits crosslinking of peptide chains
Active component mimics D-ala-D-ala bond
Penicillin
Penicillin resistant to beta lactamases
methicillin
inhibits peptid cross linking in cell walls synthesis
beta-lactams (cidal)
Polymyxin
cationic detergent
disrupts cell wall and can kill even nongrowing gram -
cationic detergent
polymyxin
Antibiotics that affect nucleic acid structure
Nitrofurantoin
Metronidazole (anerobes only)
reduced nitro groups causes DNA cleavage
Metronidazole
anerobes only
reduced nitro group cleaves DNA
Nitrofurantoin
reduced nitro group cleaves DNA
cleaves DNA afte its nitro group is reduced and only effective in anerobes
Metronidazole
Antibiotics affecting DNA synthesis
Nalidixic acid
Quinolones
Fluoroquinoloes
Novobiocin
quinolones and fluoroquinoloes
Inhibit DNA gyrase and stop synthesis
Antibiotics affecting RNA syntehsis
rifampin
rifabutin
bind to beta subunit of RNA poly and block transcription
rifampin
RNA synth inhibitor
binds to beta subunit of RNA polymerase to stop transcription
Antibiotics affecting protein synthesis at the 50S subunit
Chloramphenicol
Azithromcine, clarythiromycin, erythromycin
clindamycin and lincomycin
Antibiotics affecting protein synthesis at the 30S subunit
Aminoglycosides
Teratcyclines
Chloramphenicol
Inhibits the 50s subunit
SE: fatal aplastic anemia
Blocks both translocation and elongation during peptide synth
Erythromycin
Fatal aplastic anemia
Chloramphenicol
Act like Chloramphenicol to prevent peptid formation but also dissociates ribosome
Lincosamides (clindamycin, lincomycin)
Aminoglycosides
block 30s subunit and chain initiation
not for anerobes
Tertracylines
inhibit t-RNA biding to 30s subunit
bone seeking
not for children or pregnant women
bone seeking
Tetracyclines
bind irreversilby to 30s subunit but ineffictive under anerobic conditions
aminoglycosides
not for use on children and pregnant women
Tetracylines (bone seeking)
binds 30s subunit
Inhibits isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase
Mupirocin
Mupirocin
Inhibits isolucyle-tRNA synthetase
Antibiotics that effect folate metabolism
Sulfanomides
Trimethorprim
competitive inhibitor of dyhydropterate synthetse
Sulfanomides
inhibits dyhydrofolate reductase
trimethoprim
higher affinity for bacteria than humans
isoniazid
kills rapidly replicating organsims like TB
SE: hepatocellular damage
Ethionamide
TB infection