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19 Cards in this Set

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Gram-positive Cocci: Staphylococcus and Streptococcus
Penicillins:

Oxacillin

Cloxacillin

Dicloxacillin

Nafcillin
Gram-positive Cocci: Staphylococcus and Streptococcus


With mild penicillin allergy
First-generation cephalosporins:

Cefazolin

Cephalexin

Cephradine

Cefadroxil
Gram-positive Cocci: Staphylococcus and Streptococcus


With severe penicillin allergy
With severe penicillin allergy

Clindamycin

Macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin): Used for minor, non-life-threatening infections

Vancomycin, Synercid, Linezolid: Used for gram-positive infections with life-threatening allergy to penicillin and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
Gram-negative Bacilli


For E. coli, Proteus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Morganella, and Pseudomonas, ALL of following provide >90% coverage:
For E. coli, Proteus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Morganella, and Pseudomonas, ALL of following provide >90% coverage:

Aminoglycosides (gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin)

Aztreonam

Quinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin)
Carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem)

Extended-spectrum penicillins (piperacillin, ticarcillin, azlocillin, mezlocillin)

Third-generation cephalosporins (especially ceftazidime)

Fourth-generation cephalosporins (especially cefepime)
Second-generation cephalosporins (eg, cefoxitin, cefotetan, cefuroxime)
Good for gram-positive coverage like first-generation cephalosporins

Good for gram-negative coverage but NOT for Pseudomonas

Cefoxitin and cefotetan are good for anaerobes
Anaerobes


Oral anaerobes (anything above the diaphragm)
Oral anaerobes (anything above the diaphragm)

Clindamycin

Penicillin (any penicillin EXCEPT the Ox/Clox/Diclox/Naf group)
Anaerobes

Abdominal anaerobes (below the diaphragm)
Abdominal anaerobes (below the diaphragm)
Metronidazole
Imipenem
Second-generation cephalosporins
Beta-lactam/ Beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations
Antivirals


Herpes simplex and varicella
Antivirals


Herpes simplex and varicella

Acyclovir, valacyclovir, famciclovir
Antivirals

Herpes simplex, and varicella AND Cytomegalovirus
Antivirals

Herpes simplex, and varicella AND Cytomegalovirus

Ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir
Antivirals
Influenza
Oseltamivir, zanamivir

Amantadine, rimantadine: Becoming archaeologic
Antivirals for Influenza

Oseltamivir, zanamivir

Amantadine, rimantadine: Becoming archaeologic
Antivirals
Antivirals
Hepatitis B

Lamivudine or interferon
Antivirals
Hepatitis C
Antivirals
Hepatitis C

Interferon and ribavirin in combination
Antifungals
Life-threatening infections (eg, endocarditis, meningitis, fungemia)
Antifungals
Life-threatening infections (eg, endocarditis, meningitis, fungemia)
Antifungals
Candida infections
Antifungals

Candida infections

Azoles

Fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole
Antifungals

Onychomycosis
Antifungals


Terbinafine, itraconazole
Central Nervous System Infections
A 48-year-old man comes to the ER with 1 day of fever, headache, nausea.

What could this be?
The patient also has photophobia and nuchal rigidity (stiff neck) on exam.
Central Nervous System Infections
A 48-year-old man comes to the ER with 1 day of fever, headache, nausea.
What could this be?
Meningitis
The patient also has photophobia and nuchal rigidity (stiff neck) on exam.
Central Nervous System Infections
A 48-year-old man comes to the ER with 1 day of fever, headache, nausea.
What could this be?

The patient is disoriented confused and lethargic with difficulty thinking.
Encephalitis
Central Nervous System Infections
A 48-year-old man comes to the ER with 1 day of fever, headache, nausea.
What could this be?
The patient has focal neurological deficits found on examination.
Abscess

The patient has focal neurological deficits found on examination.
Which patients require a CT scan of the head BEFORE lumbar puncture?
Which patients require a CT scan of the head BEFORE lumbar puncture?
Focal findings

Papilledema

Altered mental status