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46 Cards in this Set

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This is a broad-spectrum antibiotic effective against anaerobes, especially bacteroides.
Chloramphenicol
The most serious side-effect of high doses of tetracyclines is ...
Renal injury
Name the major groups of B-lactam antibiotics
Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Carbacephems
Cefazolin is sensative to the B-lactamases of which group?
The Enterobacteriaceae (which are gram-)
The macrolides are cleared by the ...
Liver
What advantage do the aminopenicillins have over penicillin G?
Significantly greater activity against gram- bacteria. Especially when combined with B-lactam inhibitors
The major potential side-effect of chloramphenicol for the patient is ...
dose-dependant, reversible, bone marrow suppression
Name some groups of antibiotics effective against anaerobes.
Penicillins
Chloramphenicol
the macrolides (erythromycic)
metronidazole
clindamycin
3rd generation cephalosporins
characterize bacteroides
(gram stain, shape, metabolism)
Gram-
Rod
Obligate anaerobe
How is penicillin eliminated?
Renal
Name 3 tetracyclines.
1) tetracycline
2) Oxytetracycline
3) Doxycycline
Name 2 cephalosporins.
cefazolin
cephalexin
Describe the spectrum of the aminopenicillins (Amoxicillin, ampicillin).
gram+ bacteria
many gram- bacteria such as the enterobacteriaceae
The lincosamides (clindamycin, lincomycin) are cleared by the ...
Liver
Describe the enterobacteriaceae (enterics) in terms of gram stain,and metabolism.
Gram-
Facultative anaerobes
Name 6 enetrics (enterobactereaceae).
Escherichia
Klebsiella
Proteus
Salmonella
Shigella
Yersinia
Describe the spectrum of the cephalosporins.
Many enterics
B-lactamase producing Staphylococcus spp.
What major group of microbes are the aminoglycosides not affective against?
Anaerobes
(just like the fluoroquinolones)
Name some aminoglycoside antibiotics.
gentamycin
tobramycin
amikacin
neomycin
name 5 common characteristics of lincosamides (clindamycin, lincomycin)
and
macrolides (erythromycin).
1) excreted by the liver
2) bacteriostatic
3) good against gram+
4) OK against anerobes
5) Most aerobic gram- are resistant
Give the MOA of the macrolides (erythromycin).
They bind the 50s ribosomal subunit preventing peptide formation.
What antibiotic is particularly useful against Campylobacter?
Erythromycin
Name 2 important anaerobes
Clostridium
Bacteroides
Give the spectrum of the
macrolides (erythromycin)
and
lincosamides(clindamycinm lincomycin)
Bad against gram-
good against
-staph, strep
-campylobacter
-clostridium
-mycoplasma
-chlamydia
-toxoplasma gondii (clindamycin)
Give the spectrum of the tetracyclines.
Gram+
Gram-
Aerobes
Anaerobes
Rickettsia
Ehrlichia
Mycoplasma
***but resistance is widespread & common
Sulfa drugs are cleared by the ...
kidney AND liver
Name 2 lincosamide antibiotics.
Lincomycin
clindamycin
Name 6 drawbacks to sulfa drugs.
1) Immune reactions in black & tan dogs
2) KCS in small dogs
3) Allergic skin reactions
4) Polyarthritis
5) Hypothyroidism
6) Renal injury
Give the spectrum of trimethoprim-sulfonamides.
BROAD
-Streptococcus
-Pasteurella
-Proteus
-Salmonella
-Toxoplasma
-Coccidia
What major class of microbes is not covered by the spectrum of the fluoroquinolones?
Anaerobes
Fluoroquinolones are cleared by the ...
Kidneys
Which class of antibiotics can produce tooth discoloration and inhibit long bone growth in young animals?
Tetracyclines
What other benefit besides antimicrobial is there to metronidazole?
antiinflammatory
What major side effect has been reported for metronidazole?
Neurotoxicosis which may recover in 1 to 2 weeks
Give the spectrum of metronidazole.
Anaerobic gram- (bacteroides)
Giardia
Entamoeba
+/- clostridium
Characterize Clostridium
(gram, shape, metabolism)
Gram+
Rod
Obligate anaerobe
What 2 classes of antibiotics are the anaerobes immune to?
Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides
Characterize Streptococcus.
Gram+
Coccus
Facultative anaerobe
catalase-
Cephalosporins: cidal or static?
Bacteriacidal
How are the aminoglycosides cleared?
Kidneys
Name 2 macrolide antibiotics.
Erythromycin
Tylosin
What protozoal infection is clindamycin used for?
Toxoplasmosis
Name an important group of gram- facultative bacteria.
Enterobacteriaceae
This antibiotic distributes well to bones and joints and so is used for osteomyelitis caused by staphylococcus.
Clindamycin
Chloramphenicol is cleared by the ...
Liver
(like the macrolides and lincosamides)
Characterize Staphylococcus
(gram, shape, metabolism)
Gram+
Coccus
Facultative anaerobe
catalase +