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66 Cards in this Set

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What is a bacteriostatic antibiotic?
causes reversible inhibition of growth
What is a bactericidal antibiotic?
causes irreversible inhibition of growth
Which antibiotic inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by blocking glycopeptide polymerization through binding to the D-alany-D-alanine peptidoglycan (cell wall) precursor?
vancomycin
Vancomycin resistant bacteria change the D-ala-D-ala terminus to what?
D-ala-D-lactate (vancomycin resistant)
Vancomycin treats:
infections due to MRSA
Oral vancomycin can treat C. diff because
it is NOT absorbed into systemic circulation, but stays in the G.I. track
Red man syndrome (hyperemia), ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hypotension, hypersensitivity are side effects of what antibiotic?
vancomycin
This antibiotic inhibits the dephosphorylation of the lipid-PP carrier to lipid-P, that is required in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall
Bacitracin
Sulfonamide antibiotics antagonize what?
Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)
-enzyme that is the first step in tetrahydrofolic acid synthesis
Sulfonamides inhibit bacterial synthesis of what?
folic acid
What is a bacteriostatic antibiotic?
causes reversible inhibition of growth
What is a bactericidal antibiotic?
causes irreversible inhibition of growth
Which antibiotic inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by blocking glycopeptide polymerization through binding to the D-alany-D-alanine peptidoglycan (cell wall) precursor?
vancomycin
Vancomycin resistant bacteria change the D-ala-D-ala terminus to what?
D-ala-D-lactate (vancomycin resistant)
Vancomycin treats:
infections due to MRSA
Oral vancomycin can treat C. diff because
it is NOT absorbed into systemic circulation, but stays in the G.I. track
Red man syndrome (hyperemia), ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hypotension, hypersensitivity are side effects of what antibiotic?
vancomycin
This antibiotic inhibits the dephosphorylation of the lipid-PP carrier to lipid-P, that is required in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall
Bacitracin
Sulfonamide antibiotics antagonize what?
Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), dihydropteroic acid synthase
-enzyme that is the first step in tetrahydrofolic acid synthesis
Sulfonamides inhibit bacterial synthesis of what?
folic acid
humans lack dihydropteroic acid synthase, thus humans unaffected
Sulfonamides are bacteri__
bacteriostatic
Sulfonamides are contraindicated in neonates because
they displace bilirubin from albumin causing kernicterus in neonates
Sulfamethoxazole
Sulfacetamide
Sulfisoxazole
Examples of sulfonamides
MOA of trimethoprim?
competitive inhibitor of dihydrofolic acid reductase
Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim combo used to treat___
urinary tract infections caused by E. coli
MOA of fluoroquinilone?
inhibition of bacterial DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II)
Fluoroquinilones are contraindicated in children because___
deleterious effects on cartilage development causing tendonitis and potentially tendon rupture
Ciprofloxacin
Levofloxacin
Moxifloxacin
Examples of fluoroquinilones
-inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase
Penicillins
cephalosporins
carbapenems
monobactams
All types of beta-lactam antibiotics
MOA of beta lactams
bind to and incativate transpeptidase, inhibiting reactions necessary to cross link peptidoglycan subunits
Which beta-lactam antibiotic are resistant to beta lactamase?
monobactams (aztreonam G- rods)
Beta lactamase inhibitors that can be used in combo with penicillins:
clavulanate
sulbactam
tazobactam
An adverse effect of penicillin antibiotics with eosinophils on urinalysis
acute interstitial nephritis
-common with methicillin
Pencillin
Beta lactamase resistant
Narrow spectrum
Methicilin
Nafcilin
dicloxacillin
Penicillin
Beta lactamase susceptible
Broad spectrum
Amoxicillin
ampicillin
piperacillin
ticarcillin
Mechanism of MRSA
produce an alternative PBP 2a
Broadest spectrum cephalosporin and resistant to beta lactmase
cefepime (4th generation)
Cephalosporins are NOT effective in what infections?
enterococcal
Imipenem
meropenem
ertapenem
examples of carbapenem beta lactams
What must you give with imipenem to inhibit renal dihydropeptidases and the formation of toxic seizure inducing metabloites?
cilastatin
Ertapenem does NOT cover what organisms that imipenem does?
enterococcus and pseudomonal species are not covered by ertapenem
MOA of aminoglycosides
bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit and prevent formation of INITIATION COMPLEX inhibiting protein synthesis
Gentamicin
tobramycin
streptomycin
neomycin
amikacin
examples of aminoglycosides
Streptomycin (an aminoglycoside that bind to the 30S subunit and prevents the initiation complex) is used to treat___
tuberculosis infection
Adverse side effects of aminoglycosides:
nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity (HIGH frequency), neuromucular blockade
Drugs can become resistant to aminoglycosides by_
conjugation reactions (acetylation, adenylation, phosphorylation)
MOA of clindomycin:
binds to the 50S subunit and inhibits TRANSLOCATION of peptidyl-tRNA from acceptor to donor site, thus inhibiting protein synthesis
Clindomycin spectrum:
G+
anaerobes
Adverse effect of clindamycin and how do you treat it?
Pseudomembranous colitis from C. diff
Rx-vancomycin
MOA of macrolide antibiotics
binds to the 50S subunit and inhibits TRANSLOCATION of peptidyl-tRNA from acceptor to donor site
Erythromycin
clarithromycin
azithromycin
telithromycin
examples of macrolides
This macrolide is free of drug-drug interactions.
azithromycin
This macrolide can cause hepatotoxicity and blurred vision.
telithromycin
This macrolide is safe during pregnancy.
azithromycin
I am a macrolide. If I am given to infants less than 6wks of age for pertussis I cause HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS.
erythromycin
MOA of tetracycline antibiotics
bind to the 30S subunit and inhibit the attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA, thus inhibiting protein synthesis
tetracycline
minocycline
doxycycline
democycline
examples of tetracycline antibiotics
Democycline is used to treat what?
SIADH
Adverse effects of tetracycline antibiotics:
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, FANCONI syndrome, phototoxicity
Tetracyclines are contraindicated in children because_
they cause tooth enamel dysplasia (leading to permanent discoloration), decreased bone growth via chelation with calcium salts
MOA of chloramphenicol
binds to the 50S subunit and inhibits peptidyltransferase
adverse effects of chloramphenicol
Gray baby syndrome (hypotension and cyanosis), aplastic anemia, optic neuritis
MOA of linezolid
bind to the 50S and prevent formation of initiation complex
Spectrum that linezolid covers:
MRSA, VRSA and vancomycin resistant E. feacium and E. fecalis
Bind to components of the cell membrane and cause RAPID INTRACELLULAR DEPOLARIZATION inhibiting DNA, RNA, and protein synth
daptomycin
The exact MOA of this antiTB drug is not know but it does LOWER the pH of the environment
pyrazinamide