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204 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Science - defn.
defn - process by which information is organized sytematically
Science - characteristics
1. uncovers patterns among phenomona and processes
2. offers explanations for occurance of events
3. based on observation, hypothesis testing, natural laws
Science not require _____.
Absolute testing is _____.
Always room for _____.
Science progresses by _____, as opposed to what?
replacement and fine tuning of concepts, NOT new facts
Scientific Method (5)
1. observation/natural event
2. formation/hypothesis (why? how?)
3. testing (experimentation, observation)
4. data
5. hypothesis supported or rejected
Hypothesis - defn.
explanation inferred from previous observations
Experiment - req.
Theory - defn.
1. universal explanatory framework
2. general law
How does a theory arise?
by accumulated support for a hypothesis and rejection of other hypotheses
Examples of tested physical laws (5)
bang big
quantum mechanics
Examples of tested biological concepts (4)
genetic code
sexual reproduction
germ theory/disease
circulatory system
Paradigm - defn.
defn. - accepted way of organizing knowledge according to particular concepts
Paradigm shift - defn., ex.
defn. - new way to organize knowledge
most often controversial
ie. Origin of Species (1859)
Observations on the evolution of life on earth (2)
1. evolution speeds up over geological time
2. variation = fundamental unit of evolution
Variation - defn., exists btwn what?
defn. - fundamental unit of evolution
exists btwn different species
Philosophical tradition - defn
defn. - "thinking makes it so"
queen of the sciences
Great thinkers of Antiquity (3)
Empedocles (495-435 BC)
Plato (437-347 BC)
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Empedocles - Philosophy on the Universe
1. all matter is composed of four elements - earth, air, fire, water
2. elements shaped by two forces - love (union), strife (disconnect)
Empedocles - Philosophy of Creation
Zoogony – the origin of animals
1. separate, unattached limbs wondered through space
2. these limbs randomly combined
3. eventually whole, natural shapes came about
4. humans arose from these primordial forms

these shapes arose w/water, pushed up through earth by fire
Plato - Essentialism
1. a thing is a thing
ie. a triangle is always a triangle, nothing else
2. everything has an essence
Plato - Discontinuity of Natural Phenomena
1. nothing is related to anything else
2. everything as they are for all time
Essence - defn.
defn. - everything as they are for all time
Aristotle - Historia Animalium
natural history
search for cause - based on classifcation of differences
Aristotle - Eidos
defn. - fixed, innate properties of natural phenomena
Biological species are ______.
(according to Aristotle)
the end products of natural processes
Post Classical World ppl (2)
1. Avicenna, Arab scholar (Ibn Sina, 980-1037)
2. Averroes, scientist and mathematician
(Ibn Rushd, 1126-1198)
Avicenna - who is he? what did he write?
1. Father of modern medicine
2. wrote Canon of Medicine
Canon of Medicine
Avicenna, author
1. emphasized measurement
2. applied specifically to area of physiology
3. used through 18th century
Avicenna - firsts (3)
1. explore physiology of the human eye
2. suggest contagious theory of disease
3. analyze Sx of diabetes, cataracts
Averroes - his approach to science, thinking
experimental, analytical
Averroes - science and religion do/do not conflict.
? both ways to reach the truth
religion - Q of faith
science - experimenation
Averroes translated ____ into ____.
Aristotle's work in Arabic
Natural Theology - Christian World Viewers (3)
St. T. Aquinas (1225-74)
James Ussher (1581-1656)
John Lightfoot
Aquinas - based science on what? wrote what?
belief in God
Summa Theologica
Summa Theologica - proved what? on what basis?
God exists
1. harmony exists in the world
2. intelligent being must be responsible for order
Teleological world view - defn.
based on who's thinking?
opposed what?
defn. Christian world view
Aquinas, Aristotle
opposed evolutionary thinking
teleology - study of what?
study of purpose, design in nature
design = master plan = fixity of species
James Ussher - what did he determine? on what basis?
world created on 10/23 4004 BC
interpretation of Genesis
John Lightfoot - added on to what?
Ussher - world created at 9 AM, on Sunday 10/23 4004 BC
Age of Exploration, Discovery of Diversity - important ppl (7)
John Ray (1627-1705)
Carl Linnaeus (1707 – 1778)
Buffon (1707-1788)
Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802)
Georges Cuvier (1769-1832)
Mary Anning (1799-1847)
Lamarck (1744-1829)
Problems facing 18th cent. science (4)
1. origin of diversity
2. extinctions
3. different forms in different environments (adaptations)
4. time – if Ussher correct, no time for species to evolve
What was emphasized during the Age of Exploration? (3)
John Ray - wrote, invented what?
Works of the Creation
system of binomial classification
binomial classification
(Linnaeus, Ray)
genus, species
classification based on similarities
Carl Linnaeus
father of taxonomy
modified sys./binomial classification (used today)
Linnaeus - Scala Naturae
simple to complex chain of beings
european males the best
all species fixed and perfect
Buffon - "Natural History"
1. Organisms adapt to environment
2. Species do not change, but flexible to adapt to different environment
3. reflects perfection of God
4. flexibility perfects species in certain environment
Erasmus Darwin - "Zoonomia"
popularized Natural Hx
iambic pantameter - didn't catch on
Cuvier - how many creations?
four - catastrophy, extinction
1. new species for every creation
2. no relationship btwn extint,
extant species
Mary Anning - fossilist
1. searched for species lost in biblical flood
2. first complete Icthyosaurus
Jean Baptiste Lamark
"Zoologique", Lamark (1809)
est. elements necc. to understand evolution
1. classification
2. origin of variation
3. mechanism of variation
4. change through time
Lamarck's Law I
(dis)use of parts
"organs not used over a long period of time weaken and disappear"
Lamarck's Law II
inheritance of acquired characteristics
"use + inheritance"
Lamarck's contributions (4)
1. species changed through time
-modern species descend from extinct species
-there is continuity in nature
2. species adapt to their environment
- not created for it
- argues for the absence of design
3. environment changes
- plants, animals must adapt to changes in environment for survival
- species NOT fixed
4. proposed mechanisms of variation
Time and Age of Earth - the players (4)
James Hutton (1726-1797)
Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
James Hutton - father of ____
"present explains the past" how? (3)
father of modern geology
plutonism, deep time, uniformitarianism
1. plutonism – concept of how rocks evolved
- bottom layers were deposited first on an ancient sea floor
- these were tilted and thrust upward, by the heat of the earth’s core
- they eroded over time
- new layers were deposited
- mechanisms that drove this deposition in the past are the same as today
Concept of "Deep Time"
- against neptunism - earth NOT formed out of flood
- no catastrophe, rather earth formed over long time
Lyell - "Principles of Geology"
-resurrects Huttons work
-emphasis on uniformitarianism
"earth is old, change is slow"
Malthusian Dilemma
population growth is geometric
food supply is arithmetic (limited)
intense competition for food, resources when population surpasses food supply
Natural Selection (Darwin)
differences amoung individuals in a population in their reproductive success (fertility and survival of offspring) over multiple generations
Natural Selection acts on ____
Darwin's observations (5)
1. populations increase at a faster rate than the food supply (malthus)
2. populations reach steady state
3. populations composed of individuals
4. individuals w/in populations vary
5. variation is heritable
Darwin's inferences (6)
1. struggle for resources
2. struggling individuals vary
3. some individuals variants better than others
4. inviduals w/better variants more successful at reproducing
5. offspring inherit better variants
6. over time, individuals w/better variants will comprise a majority of the population
Darwin v. Lamarck Evolution
Lamarck - inheritance of acquired characteristics
Darwin - natural selection of favorable traits
Natural v. Artificial Selection
natural selection –
operates on existing variation
new traits don’t arise b/c of need
traits (phenotypes) selected for already present in the population
artificial selection – breeding
not an evolutionary process
Adaptation - defn.
defn. - ability of a species to “roll with [environmental] punches”
Discontinuity, characteristics
1. essentialism
2. teleological thought, intelligent design
3. fixity of species
4. no hx relationships among living and extinct species
5. present not connected to past
6. no concern for processes, the world is static
Discontinuits (8)
religious leaders
general public
Continuity, characteristics (5)
1. past, present linked
2. species change
3. living, extinct species related
4. species arise from natural processes – the world is dynamic, mechanistic
5. search for mechanisms – random, no like or dislike
Continuists (4)
Darwin's accomplishments (6)
1. replaced static world view w/evolution
2. refuted manifest creation - God’s purpose not revealed in nature
3. refuted teleology: argument from design
4. principles of common descent applied to animals and humans
5. nature designed by purely mechanistic process called natural selection
6. population thinking replaces essentialism
Oppositions to Darwin (4)
Butler Act (Tennessee, 1925)
Anti-Evolution League
Kansas Board of Education (’99, ’05)
Darwin defender
1. hypothesis and best explanation of observed facts
2. “organized natural hx in a coherent and intelligible way”
"Ultimate Laws of Physiology" (Spencer)
Social Darwinism -
1. applied Darwin’s theory to social change
2. selection for well endowed societies, ie Western Europe
3. coined term – “survival of the fittest”
What resulted from the 1859 publication of "Origin of Species"?
1. Natural Hx = Science
2. diversity, change are testable
3. "New World View"
"New World View"
Science is the center of research
Mendel - elemente
elemente = units
units fuse if identical
eliminated idea of "blending inheritanc"
..set track toward independent assortment
Mendel - contributions to what we know about inheritance patterns (2)
Hippocrates - Pangenesis
european hypothesis of inheritance until 19th century
1. formation of seed material
2. this matter comes from all parts of the body
3. it carries with it the state of each part of the body
4. during fertilization, seed material from mom and dad are mixed, blended
Weissman - Germ Track Theory
1. separation of soma (body) and “germ plasm” (reproductive unit)
2. heredity is controlled by tiny particles (biosphores), which are collections of molc.
(one biosphore = one trait)
3. each biosphore has many replicas in ea. nucleus
4. during mitosis, there is unequal distribution of biosphores among daughter cells
Spencer - Physiological Units
derivation from Weisman
1. self replicating
2. specie specific
3. identical w/in individuals
4. variation – different numbers of units from two parents
Units of inheritance = ??
(est. 1860)
minute corpuscles w/in body (capable of development, inheritance, change)
Darwin's theory/inheritance
1. each individual has many small particles, located in germ cells
2. particles are invisible
3. mult. by division
4. transmitted to daughter cells from mother cells
Bateson - rediscovery/Mendel's work resulted in what? (1902)
1. mathematical understanding of inheritance
2. rise of modern study of inheritance
3. leads to rejection of Darwinism
4. coined term “genetics”
The Modern Synthesis
1. comprehensive theory of evolution
2. integration of Darwinian and Mendelian mechanisms
3. Decent w/modification
Architects of Modern Synthesis
T.H. Morgan
R.A. Fisher
J.B.S. Haldane
Sewall Wright
Theodosius Dobzhansky
Ernst Mayr
Julian Huxley
T.H. Morgan
1. fly room at Columbia University
2. experimental biology and evolutionary theory
3. mendelian inheritance, chromosome theory (1915)
R.A. Fisher - "Mathematical Model of Mendenlian Inheritance" (1918)
many discrete traits operating together give rise to continuous variation
J.B.S. Haldane
1. mathematical (population) genetics
2. mathematical theories of natural selection
3. integration of natural selection and mutation
4. The Causes of Evolution (1932)
Sewall Wright
1. another founder of population genetics
2. inbreeding coefficient, genetic drift
3. distribution of gene frequencies in populations a result of interaction btwn four mechanisms of evolution
Dobzhansky -"Genetics and the Origin of Species" (1937)
first to apply Morgan’s chromosome theory and population genetics in nature
Huxley - "Evolution, The Modern Synthesis" (1942)
Evolution = change in gene frequency
Mendelian (simple) traits - defn., how measured?
defn. – a gene codes for a particular trait
measured by frequency w/in population
Early pedigree analysis, their studies
Dalton - color blindness
Garrad - metabolic disorders
Farabee - bradydactly
no pigment
prob. w/ sugar metabolism
inability to reabsorb cystine fr. kidney (leads to stones)
inability to metabolize tyrosine
effects: dark urine, severe arthritis in adulthood
androgentic alopecia = ??
what type of trait?
male pattern baldness
mendelian, autosomal dominant
balding is a trait showing mixed penetrance. What other genes contribute to time, degree of hair loss?
age of onset
variable expressivity
incomplete penetrance
what is the physiological cause of balding?
androgens testosterone and DHT - cause follicular miniaturization
what happens as a result of follicular minaturization?
1. follicles decrease in size
2. hair is thinner and shorter
3. growing phase shorter
4. hair is shed
5. follicles continue to shrink, eventually die
sexual selection - defn., ex.
defn. - traits chosen for reproductive purposes
ex. - baldness
hair myths (8)
1. baldness is inherited from your maternal grandfather
2. stress causes it
3. bald men are more virile
4. bald men are more intelligent
5. shaving hair makes it grow back stronger
6. standing on head alleviates baldness
7. wearing hats causes it
8. massaging scalp will regrow hair
non-mendelian examples/baldness, characteristics
1. alopecia areata
-patchy hair loss
-immune response, stress related
2. traction alopecia
-loosen your braids!!
chin fissures
mendelian trait
1. autosomal dominant
2. incomplete penetrance
3. incomplete fusion of two halves of lower jaw during embryonic development
cerumen (ear wax)
medelian trait
WW = wet (homozygous dominant)
Ww = wet (heterozygous)
ww = dry (recessive)

‘W’ – wet earwax, bad B.O.
penetrance - defn.
proportion of individuals that show predicted phenotypes under a defined set of environmental conditions
complete penetrance - defn.
all individuals carrying dominant gene show phenotype
expressivity - defn.
range of phenotypes expressed by a given genotype
1. under a given set of environmental conditions
2. over a range of environmental conditions
Pleiotropic trait - defn., ex.
one gene affects more than one trait
ex. Sickle cell anemia
Evolution - defn. according to Modern Synthesis
change in gene frequency
Species Concept - defn.
reproductively isolated collections of populations
(replaced typogological thinking)
micro v. macro evolution
micro – change in gene freq. in a pop. from generation to generation (rapid)
macro – emergence of new species (gradual)
1950-present – Molecular Revolution
1. rise of molecular genetics
2. emphasis on molecular basis/inheritance, variation
Watson and Crick (1953)
determine structure/DNA
publish two papers
win Nobel Prize is 1962
Rosalind Franklin (1951)
x-ray defraction photo of structure of DNA
mutation - defn, characteristics (4)
defn. - change in DNA structure
1. only mechanism adding new info to genome
2. heritable changes in genetic material
3. random
4. arise at predictable freq, some more, less than others
types of mutations (2)
chromosomal aberrations
gene mutations
-pt mutation (a.a. substitution)
-frame shift (insertion, deletion)
Mechanisms of Evolution (4)
Genetic flow
Genetic drift
Natural selection
gene flow - defn., how occurs?
exchange, mixing /genes btwn different populations
how? migration, hybridization
gene drift - defn.
random fluctuations in allele freq. in sm. pops
natural selection - defn. according to Modern Synthesis
differential survival and reproductive success
How do Mechs/Evol change gene freq?
1. mutations - create new genetic variants
2. gene flow, drift, natural selection - re-order existing genetic variants
categories/mating practices (2)
exogamy - defn., how determined?, result?
defn. - marrying outside your group
"outside" is culturally determined
results in allele exchange
advantages/exogamy (5)
1. social alliance
2. spread/beneficial mutations
3. increases adaptive potential
4. homogenizing effect -populations resemble each other
5. maintains species' integrity
exchange prevents speciation events
endogamy - defn., how determined?
defn. - marrying inside your group
"inside" is culturally defined
1. no social alliances
2. probability/consanguinity goes up
consanguineous mating - defn.
defn. - mating btwn blood relatives
cousin marriage
parallel, cross cousins
parallel - tracked btwn siblings/same sex
ie. son marries father’s brother’s daughter

cross - tracked btwn siblings/opp. sex
ie. son marries father’s sister's daughter
consequence/endogamy, ex.
loss/genetic variation leads to persistence/mutations that are very bad
ex. Carlos the Bewitched
gene flow:
____variation w/in populations
____variation btwn populations
absence of gene flow leads to____, which ____ homozygosity
categories of genetic drift (3)
1. intergenerational drift
2. founder effect
3. bottleneck effect
(1,2 are main factors)
intergenerational drift
1. gene freq/certain allele decreases, disappears over generations
2. loss is random, an effect of sampling
founder effect
1. group/indv. leave a pop.
indv. that leave represent a 2. nonrandom sample from original population
??? – individuals have different gene freq. than ancestral gen
1. drastic reduction in population (disease, genocide)
2. survivors a non representative sample of the generation
3. influences the direction of drift, magnify effects
genetic drift..
____variation w/in populations
____variation btwn populations
____ and ____ are more suseptible to genetic drift
1. allels occuring in low frequencies
2. small populations
drift was an (un)important evolutionary force throughout hx. ???
??? populations have traditionally been very small
Tristan De Cunha -
incidence/inbreeding = ??
due to what evolutionary forces?
founder effect
genetic drift
disorder affecting population on TDC? frequency?
retinitis pigmentosa - disorder affecting rods and macula of eye
1/74 on island
21% of ppl are carriers)
why is the retinitsis pigmentosa found in such high frequency on TDC?
founder effect
what were the two major events that resulted in bottleneck effects on TDC?
1855 - leader died, ppl left
1885 - boat wreck, 15 died, 32 left
alleles increase in frequency due to ____,
random factors (evolution)
genetic profile of population on TDC does/does not resemble ancesteral population
does not
Martha's Vineyard - what disorder observed? freq.?? why??
hereditary deafness
1/25 to 1/55 on island v. 1/3000 in general pop.
?? founder effect, inbreeding
Kansas Marriage Law
outlawed incestuous marriage in 1867
Darwinian Evolution
Modern Synthesis Evolution
Natural Selection
DE - decent w/modification
MSE - changes in gene freq
NS - differential survival, reproductive success
Elements of Natural Selection, defns. (2)
1. differential survival – phenotypes suited to the environment out-survive other phenotypes
2. differential reproduction –phenotypes suited to the environment out-reproduce other phenotypes who also survive
phenotypes w/selective advantage are more ____
Fitness - defn.
defn. - rate of increase, or reproductive success, of one phenotype in a population relative to another phenotype
1. disproportianate dwarfism
2. autosomal dominant
3. results from a reoccuring pt. mutation on Chromosome 4
4. affects 1/240,000 births
achondroplasic genetic cross
DD genotype lethal (deleterious mutation)
Dd express phenotype
dd normal
transient polymorphism – defn., ex.
selection against an allele
ex. achondroplasia (dominant)
Tay-Sachs (recessive)
fixation – defn.
when an allele disappears entirely from a population, given time
tansient polymorphisms take ____ generations to fixate when dominant allele selected against
Tay-Sachs Disease
infantile amaurotic familial idiocy
-deficiency in hexosaminidase A leads to accumulation of types of lipids in brain
2. autosomal recessive
3. result of phase shift on chromosome 15
4. affects 1/6000 Ashkenazi Jews v. 1/500,000 in general population
Tay-Sachs genetic cross
TT – normal
Tt – carrier
tt – tay-sachs, fatal
individuals afflicted w/Tay-Sachs die btwn ages ___.
Fitness = ____
transient polymorphisms take ____ generations to fixate when recessive allele selected against
Sickle cell phenotypes
A – normal
S – sickle cell disease
AS – sickle cell trait
fewer malaria parasites, less acute sx, some normal and abnormal cells
Sickle cell genetic cross
AA – W = 0.8 (phenotype A)
more parasites, more acute sx
AS – highest relative fitness (W = 1) (AS)
SS – fatal (S)
fewest parasites, lethal anemia
Sickle cell is a transient polymorphism in which both ____ are selected against
homozygous phenotypes
heterozygote advantage - defn.
defn. balanced polymorphisms
-both alleles maintained in population
?? both alleles needed for heterozygote
no fixation
for any type of selection...
1. trait must be inherited
2. must be variation
3. can change either morphology and behavior, or both
4. works in small steps, not leaps
characteristics of complex traits (4)
1. vary continuously
2. additive effects of different alleles
3. polygenic – multiple minor genes influence phenotypic outcome of major genes
4. expression of these traits influenced by environment
examples of complex traits (3)
eye color
types/selection that work on complex traits (3)
directional selection – defn., result, ex.
defn. - intense selection against one phenotypic extreme
-distribution mean will shift L. or R.
ex. height
stabilizing selection - defn., results, ex.
defn. - selection against both phenotypic extremes
-stabilizes central population trait
-mean stays same
-variance decreased
ex. birth weight (7-7.25 lb)
distrubtive selection - defn, results
defn. selection against center of distribution
-favors two phenotypic extremes
-two new distributions w/different means, little overlap
-most likely to give rise to new species
sexual selection - defns. (2)
defn.1 - traits that increase individual lifetime reproductive success
defn.2 - traits that increase likelihood you will develop, reproduce
Biological Anthropology - defn.
defn. - Study of hmans as a species
Study of human biological variation
Study of evolution of human biology and behavior
study of pre-historic hominids
study of ancient diseases
study of living and non living primates
Human Biology-
Study of the biology of humans
Applied physical anthropology-
Forensics and genetic epidemiology
Scopes “Monkey Trial” Dayton, Tennessee (July 10-21 1925)
o Clarence Darrow, concerned with first amendment and freedom of speech, defended John Scopes, high school biology teacher, because Scopes taught out of a book that had evolution in it
o William Jennings Bryan-prosecutor- concerned with social Darwinism and decline of moral society
o Scopes is convicted and pays small fine
o The Butler Act (1925)-Tennessee
 “It wil be unlawful for any teacher… to teach any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible and to instead teach that man has descended from a lower order of animals.”
o Sexual Selection results from (2):
 Competition within one gender for mates (intrasexual competition)
 Conflicting Reproductive Strategies of males and females (interpartner competition)
o Why do species go extinct?
The inability to adapt causes extinction
 Inability to migrate
 Lack of biological variation
 Lack of Behavioral Variation
o The Red Queen Hypothesis Leigh Van Valen 1973
Adaptation is running in place…staying still is falling behind in the evolutionary world
•Adaptation is..
1. any trait that increases an organism’s fitness in a given environment or…
2. The Process by which these traits are selected for in a population, increasing its likelihood of survival over time in that environment
•Adaptation: some concepts
the optimal internal environment of the body: temperature, water balance, blood pressure, pH, nutrient balance, etc.
- disturbance in, or departure from, homeostasis
ex. Increase in internal body temperature, causing deviation from normal
- anything that causes stress
Levels of adaptive responses
Physiological acclimatization
Developmental acclimatization
Genetic adaptation
short term, may be experimentally induced. Reversible
Physiological acclimatization-
stress is acute for a period of days, weeks, or months. Reversible
ex. base camps at Mt. Everest
Developmental acclimatization-
stress is continuous requiring adjustment during the growth period. Not reversible
ex. extreme cold
Genetic adaptation-
A population response. Evolutionary change.
Not reversible
ex. sickle cell trait
adaptation to malaria
Behavioral Adaptation-
both long and short term. Plastic
 Most rapid of all adjustments to stressors
 May involve invention and learning, allowing it to be more plastic than other adjustments
 Incomplete physiological or behavioral adjustment of an individual to long-term, or chronic stressor(s)
ex. Growth Stunting
 Generally involves some kind of trade-off
 Maladaptive: Reduces lifetime fitness
 The body size usually increase with decreasing temperature of the habitat
 Animals (same species) in warm areas will have smaller bodies than those in cold regions
Allen’s Rule
 The relative length of protruding organs (limbs, ears, tails) tends to increase with increasing temperature of the habitat
•Climatic Adaptation
Allen’s Rule
•Adaptive pressures (stressors) in human microevolution (2)
1. Climatic - Adaptation
2. Temperature, aridity - Body shape and size, basal metabolic rate
UV radiation - Skin color
Altitude - Cardiovascular, metabolic, pulmonary functions