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82 Cards in this Set

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Kinship
A network of relatives within which individuals possess certain mutual rights and obligations.
Unilineal Descent
Descent that establishes group membership exclusively through either the male or female line; also known as unilateral decent
Kindred
An individual's close blood relatives on the maternal and paternal sides of his or her family.
Lineage
A unilineal kinship group descended from a common ancestor or founder who lived four to six generations ago, and in which relationships among members can be exactly stated in genealogical terms.
Clan
An extended unilineal kinship group, often consisting of several lineages, whose members claim common descent from a remote ancestor, usually legendary or mythological.
Totems
Clans, lacking the unity of lineages, frequently depend on symbols of animals, plants, natural forces, colors and special objects, to provide members with solidarity and a ready means of identification. These symbols often are associated with the clan's mythical origin and reinforce clan members' awareness of their common descent.
Phratry
A unilineal descent group composed of at least two clans that supposedly share a common ancestry, whether or not they really do.
Moiety
Each group that results from a division of a society into two halves on the basis of descent.
Eskimo System
Kinship reckoning in which the nuclear family is emphasized by specifically identifying the mother, father, brother, and sister, while lumping together all other relatives into broad categories such as uncle, aunt, and cousin; also known as a lineal system.
Hawaiian System
Kinship reckoning in which all relatives of the same sex and generation are referred to by the same term. No cousin marriage. Least complex. Lumped by generation and sex in their kin name.
Iroquois system
Kinship reckoning in which a father and a father's brother are referred to by a single term, as are a mother and mother's sister, but a father's sister and mother's brother are given separate terms. Parallel cousins are classified with brother and sisters, while cross cousins are classified separately but not equated with relatives fo some other generation. Yanamamo use it. Wide Spread. Marrying of cross cousins.
Age Grade
An organized category of people based on age; every individual passes through a series of such categories over his or her lifetime.
Age Set
A formally established group of people born during a certain time span who move through series of age-grade categories together.
Common-Interest Association
An association that results from an act of joining based on sharing particular activities, objectives, values, or beliefs, sometimes rooted in common ethnic, religious, or regional background. For Example: military associations, men's lodges, etc.
Stratified Society
A society in which people are hierarchically divided and ranked into social strata, or layers, and do not share equally in the basic resources that support survival, influence, and prestige.
Egalitairan Society
A society in which everyone has about equal rank, access to , and power over, the basic resources that support survival, influence, and prestige.
Caste
A closed social class in a stratified society in which membership is determined by birth and fixed for life.
Social Mobility
Upward or downward change in one's social class position in a stratified society.
Band
A relatively small and loosely organized kin-ordered group that inhabits a common territory and that may split periodically into smaller extended family groups that are politically and economically independent.
Tribe
A range of kin-ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture, language, and territory.
Chiefdom
A regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief, who is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people.
State
In anthropology, a political institution established to manage and defend a complex, socially stratified society occupying a defined territory.
Social Control
All public and private mechanisms used to get people to behave: Two types Internalized and Externalized.
Internalized Controls
Cultural and Social Controls, made of beliefs so ingrained that a person will do what is right. They rely on fear of supernatural punishment, retaliation through magic, etc. Taboos.
Cultural Control
Control through beliefs and values deeply internalized in the minds of individuals. an Internalized Control
Externalized Controls
Sanctions: An externalized social control designed to encourage conformity to social norms. Enforcement through coercion. Can be positive or negative. Positive an incentive, an award, a title, recognition. Negative - deterrents or threats like jail, prison , fines. Sanctions are formal or informal Formal are codified (written down). Informal (not written down), like Amish Shunning. Kpelle from Liberia, hot knife test.
Sanctions
An externalized social control designed to encourage conformity to social norms.
Religion
An organized system of ideas about the spiritual or the supernatural, along with associated ceremonial practices by which people try to interpret and/or influence aspects of the universe that are otherwise beyond their control.
Spirituality
Concern with the sacred, as distinguished from material matters. In contrast to religion, spirituality is often individual rather than collective and does not require a distinctive format or traditional organization.
Animism
A belief that nature is animated (enlivened or energized) by distinct personalized spirit beings separable from bodies.
Animatism
A belief that nature is enlivened or energized by an impersonal spiritual power or supernatural potency.
Shaman
A person who enters an altered state of consciousness at will to contact and utilize an ordinarily hidden reality in order to acquire knowledge, power, and to help others.
Rite of Passage
A ritual that marks an important stage in an individuals life cycle, such as birth, marriage, and death.
Rite of intensification
A ritual that takes place during a crisis in the life of the group and serves to bind individuals together.
Witchcraft
An explanation of events based on the belief that certain individuals possess an innate psychic power capable of causing harm, including sickness, and death.
Contagious Magic
Magic based on the principle that things or persons once in contact can influence each other after the contact is broken.
6 Types of Residence Rules
Neolocal Residence
Patrilocal Residence
Matrilocal Residence
Avunculocal Residence
Ambilocal Residence
Natalocal Residence
Neolocal Residence
Most western households. Married couple has own new residence. (Foragers too) Nuclear Family.
Patrilocal Residence
After reaching maturity, a man will remain in his father's house and a woman will come there to live. Appears in patrilineal cultures, with pastoralism and smaller-scale agriculture.
Matrilocal Residence
Woman remains and man comes to live with them. The sons move out. Matralineal societies. Common amongst horticultural groups
Avunculocal Residence
"Avunculus" Your Maternal Uncle. A married woman moves to husbands house. Upon maturity sons move into the mother's brother's household. Matrilineal cultures. Trobirand Islanders. where political stature is important
Ambilocal Residence
"ambi" both. Married couple gets to choose wether they live with wife;s or husband's family. Most lexible. They are not stuck. Can switch later. Hunters and gathering societies.
Natalocal Residence
Husband and wife each live with their own families. Children stay with the mothers. Na and Nayar. Matrilineal Societies - rare.
Nuclear Family
One or more parents with their dependent offspring
Blended Family
Brady Bunch, Step Children (Serial monogamy)
Family
2 or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption
Family of Orientation
Family you are born into and raised.
Family of Procreation
Family you create yourself when you get married and have children.
Lineal Kin
(Straight line down) Direct ancestor or descendent of Ego
Collateral Kin
Everybody else who branches out to the side (SIblings, nieces, nephews, uncles, aunts, etc...)
Extended Family
2 or more nuclear families tied together by groups of decent. 3 or more generations under one roof.
Joint Family
2 or more relatives of same generation live in one family home. Like Dana and Enrique when they lived with us.
Crow System
A kinship system only found with matrilineal societies (like Hopi or Australian Aborigines). It down plays father's side and places importance on mother's side.
Omaha
Huge portions of Africa. Mirror image of Crow. Patrilineal Descent
Sudanese
Most complicated. Still used today ancient latin society, turkey, separate kin name for everyone.
Achieved Status
Status that is earned. Appears in an open class society, with social class mobility. Our society's anti-neopotism laws show how we value this.
Ascribed Status
Social class you are born into: Race, sex, etc. Also the caste system, & social class in India.
Power
Your ability to impose your will on someone else. coercive force.
Authority
Power that is accepted as being legitimate. Acquired through conventional means. Comes with an office: it's the position not the person.
Elman Service
Every Political groups in the world can fall into one of four types of political organization: Band, tribe, chiefdom, state.
Uncentralized
Marriage and kinship learders have no real power. Power is usually shared: Band, Headman, Tribe
Centralized political system
Chiefdom, State: Increased population. Increased problems.
Chiefdom
Political system associated with low intensity agriculture, of 5,000-20,000 individuals. Several local communities with chiefs of their own under a big chief (paramount chief). This is an actual Office with true authority. Permanent position, often hereditary. Unstable system: People not content where they are and want to rise- chief to paramount chief. No social classes but there is status: people closer to the high ancestor live in opulence compared to other people. Found in Trobriand Islands and those who have potlaches.
Chief
Someone who hears disputes, controls labor force, collects food; often a religious figure as well. Had so much power, almost like a dictatorship, but today they are only ceremonial. State level organizations tore them down because they don't want them as rivals.
State
Most Formal. 10,000-millions of people. Hallmark of civilization. Patch of land with a Sovereign. Bureaucracy-number of people organized into bureaus. lots of levels. Codified (written laws) laws. Cops, judges, all for maintaining order. Micro managed everything. stratified societies (status differences).
Uncentralized Systems
Marriage and kinship. Leaders have no real power. Ppower is usually shared. Band. Headman. Tribe.
Band
Only with foragers. Nuclear family. Want to keep numbers low. Fully egalitarian. Small, less then 100 people, made up of four nomadic groups. oldest political organization. no leadership office. there may be a person of influence, but decisions made collectively. (!Kung have a head man). disagreements rare. Organized on the Family Level.
Tribe
Horticultural or pastorialists. Composed of smaller communities to make a tribe. Above family lvl. A clan like. Work together in trade. Subsistence strategies house construction and ceremonial activities any joint endeavors. Egalitarian. Only difference age gender personality. No social class. Based on warfair and raiding. Village head, big man, segmentary lineage system.
Village Head
individuals who have achieved (office) status. Yanamamo. Based on prestige and respect based on your personality
Big man
political leader of a tribe. Only in New Guinea. no real authority, only assigned power.
Segmentary Lineage System
Only in tribes with no village head or big man. When there is a threat they band together otherwise totally on their own. All ways comes back to kinship or decent. Tiv. Nuer. Found commonly in Africa. Israelites. "Fear of the Feud". Never one on one. Up against family.
Bands and Tribes
Political organization is embedded over all in their everyday activities.
Shamanic Complex
(Triangle with shaman, patient, and community at corners). Shaman himself must b e fully convinced of his own power. Patient must believe in his powers. Same with his community. Trust all around.
Medicine Man
English term made up. NOT NATIVE AMERICAN! They have their own terms. Each group is different.
Witch Doctor
No direct contact with spirit world. Go to them to cure yourself if you have been bewitched. Do not put hexes. Found in Africa. He heals people.
Rituals
Ceremonies that reinforce a groups social bonds. Religion in action. Used to mark certain events. Birth, Puberty, Marriage, Death
Arnold Van Gennep
All cultures have prescribed ways to deal/mark those transitions. He coined the term "Rites of passage". Believed Every rite of passage had 3 stages: Separation-separation of individual removing yourself from old status. Transitional Stage-the rite. Re-integration-back into society with your new status.
Sympathetic Magic
Also called imitative Magic. Magic based on the principle that like produces like.
James Frazer
Made a useful distinction between two fundamental principles of magic. Contagious Magic and Sympathetic Magic. Wrote "The Golden Bough"
E. E. Evans-Pritchard
Oxford, studied Azande witchcraft, recognized how widespread witchcraft was in small-scale society.

"'Azande witchcraft ain't hard,
said Evans-Pritchard."
Bronislaw Malinowski
"Baseball Magic" not written but inspired by him. Studied Trobriand Islanders. Rituals and magic used for sense of control (e.g. fishing in lagoon vs. sea; baseball).

"Don't let Malinowski,
play ball in your houski."
Sir James Frazer
"Golden Bough" 1890. Comparing all religions of the world, identified two types of magic: sympathetic, and contagious.

"One bough from Frazier,
is worth 2 magics in the bush."