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84 Cards in this Set

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artifact
made, modified, or used by humans
nomadic
most were hunters and gatherers
paleolithic
old stone age
mesolithic
middle stone age
neolithic
new or recent, start of agriculture and pottery
trade
exchange of raw goods and information of ideas allows for information to be exchanged over large areas, acts as a levelers of cultural development
absolute dating
- the process of determining a specific date for an archaeological site or artifact. Some archaeologists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating, as use of the word "absolute" implies a certainty and precision that is rarely possible in archaeology. Absolute dating is usually based on the physical or chemical properties of the materials of artifacts, buildings, or other items that have been modified by humans. Absolute dates do not necessarily tell us when a particular cultural event happened, but when taken as part of the overall archaeological record they are invaluable in constructing a more specific sequence of events.
relative dating
estimates of the order of prehistoric and geological events were determined by using basic stratigraphic rules, and by observing where fossil organisms lay in the geological record, stratified bands of rocks present throughout the world.
C-14
most common form of absolute dating
stratigraphy
study of rock layers
seriation
a way of situating an object in a series
horticulture
The origins of horticulture lie in the transition of human communities from nomadic hunter gatherers to sedentary or semi-sedentary horticultural communities, cultivating a variety of crops on a small scale around their dwellings or in specialized plots at some remove
agriculture
process of producing food. The history of agriculture is a major element of human history, as agricultural progress has been a crucial factor in worldwide socio-economic change, including the specialization of human activity: when farmers became capable of producing food beyond the needs of their own families, others in the tribe/nation/empire were freed to devote themselves to activities other than food acquisition.
band
groups based on kinship, do not have good leadership, very fluid b/c of their leadership
tribe
chief is the leader, has minimal authority, people respect chief, they lead by example
chiefdom
chief has the idea that he has the authority to rule, has a lot of authority
Levalloisian
a distinctive type of flint knapping developed by humans during the Paleolithic period
oldwan
pebble tools
Acheulean
homo erectus, hand axe, choppers and scrapers
Paleo Indians
demonstrate they are close to Pleistocene animals, wide range of animals, few humans to compete with
monumental
thought control in architecture
rise of civilization
surplus of food (the ability for people to have this) and urbanism (the ability for people to live here
circumscribed zones
surrounded by boundries
dibble
simple agriculture
atlatl
a spear thrower
mesopotamia
modern day iraq, lies b/w Tigris and Euphrates, Egypt(Nile), Pakistan, Chine, ect.
midden
any feature containig waste
patterns of stone tools
hand axe, club, spear, atatl, bow, crossbow, gun, ect
Hierarchical
a system of organizing and ranking people
stratified
certain individuals have different access to resources, top good, bottom bad – leads to sociopolitical advances. Most modern societies are stratified
Egalitarian society
everyone is equal, many valuable positions (positions of authority) also leads to sociopolitical advances
flake tool vs. core
flake is the stuff that comes off when you hit the stone, core is the remaining part. Core was more common
irrigation or hydraulic theory
irrigation, making canals and dams, regulating flow of water, increasing role of sociopology
middle paleolithic
stone making became using a core technique. It was the time of the Neandertals.
mousterian tools
(neandertalensis – middle Paleolithic) more flake tools, smaller, hand axe, bone tools and ivory
archaeomagnetic dating
the science of how to interpret signatures of the Earth's magnetic field at past times that are recorded in archaeological materials.
bronze age
development of metal working
moundiville in AL
political and ceremonial center of a regionally organized Mississippian culture chiefdom polity
mississippian
constructed mounds, had trade networks, development of social inequality, politics
Dzibilichaltun
is a Maya ruin. The most famous structure is the Temple Of The Seven Dolls. The other major feature of Dzibilchaltùn is its cenote, which is used as a swimming hole by local residents year round.
burin
a stone use to tailor clothing
half life of C-14
5730 years
BP - 1950
Homo Erectus
use of fire, bone, and ivory in upper paleolithic
cuneiform
earliest written language, used to make imprints in clay
EMIC
outside view
ETIC
inside view
myth
any stories linked to religious or cultural life. Often used to explain something, like how the sun rises.
magic
belief in supernatural powers
sympathic magic
magic based on the principle that like produce like, if something good happened you would try to do exactly the same thing, lucky charms, vudu doll, burning flag
contagious magic
magic based on the principle that things once in contact can influence one another after separation, hair, rabbit foot
religion
the beliefs and patterns of behavior by which people try to control the area of the universe that is otherwise beyond their control. Religion is part of all known cultures
shaman
a part time religion practioner, may have special powers, tells the gods what to do, more powerful than preist
priest
a full time religious specialist, he tells us what God wants us to do
M.Mauss
"The Gift"
reciprocity
exchange often between social equals, related by kinship, marriage, and other close ties. There are three degrees of reciprocity: generalized(whenever you want to give back the $) , balanced (bank) , negative (you take advantage of)
ritual
behavior that has become highly formalized and stereotyped. Ritual can perform the basic function of reinforcing group solidarity. Helps integrate individual behaviors into a group structure, thereby reducing anxiety; one’ sense of belonging is reinforced with one acts with the group
fraternal
friendly society, or society consisting of men
polyandry
female forming a sexual union between more than one man
monogamous
having only one mate
marriage
a transaction and contract which 2 people establish a continuing claim to be eligible to bear children
kinship
associated with societies and takes different forms
berdache
Can be identified as a morphological male who does not fill a society’s standard man’s role, who has a non-masculine character. Has social prestige by their spiritual intelligence.
ethnicity
a group of members of a society who identify with each, usually based on geneology
taboo
a strong social prohibition (or ban) against words, objects, actions, discussions, or people that are considered undesirable or offensive by a group, culture, or society.
nacirema
to study aspects of the behavior and society of American people
incest
having sex with close family members
rites of passage
rituals that mark a person’s transition from one set of socially identified circumstances to another. Examples include rituals with birth, death, and marriage
hopi
largest Native American community is in Arizona
Consanguineal Kin
relatives by birth or "blood relatives"
affinal kin
relatives by marriage
nuclear family
family consisting of husband, wife, and dependent children
extended family
a collection of nuclear families or family members, related by blood ties, that live together in a household
broken family
result of divorce, death, and other factors
patrilocal
lives with husband family
matrilocal
lives with wife's family's
neolocal
creat own home
lineage
a decent group whose members claim decent from a common ancestor and can trace their genealogical links to that ancestor
clan
a decent group whose members claim decent from a common ancestor, without actually knowing the genealogical links (Creek Clan – Wind Clan)
totemism
the view that people are descended from animals or other natural objects, often used as the symbol of the clan, considered as having strong relationship with that object/animal
caste system
very limited mobility, you are born in the system, degrees of freedom are little
witchcraft
an explanation of misfortune based on the belief that certain individuals possess an innate, psychic power capable of causing harm
divination
a procedure by which the causes of particular events may be determined or the future foretold
animism
type of religion, spirit beings which are thought to animate nature, spirits are everywhere
pantheon
several gods and goddeses