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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of the whole of the human condition---biological and cultural variation in time and space.
Cultural anthropology
The study of cultural differences and similarities among widespread human groups.
Ethnographic research
(scientific description of individual cultures). The anthropologist closely
Complex societies
Large and populous societies with social satisfaction and central governments
EX: United States and Canada
Attributes that vary among members of a sample or population
A way of life--traditions and customs--transmitted through learning, which play a vital role in modeling the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them.
The process by which a child learns his or her culture.
The study of human biological and cultural diversity in time and space.
"What they say" Some stories are rooted in actual historical events
Several cultures
Social predictors/indicators
Examples: religion, region of country we grew up in, parent's professions, ethnic origins, income levels...etc...
Something verbal or nonverbal, in a language or a culture, that comes to stand for something else.
Culture trait
An individual item in a culture, such as a particular belief, tool, or practice.
Culture pattern
A coherent set of interrelated traits
Core values
Key, basic, or central values
Ideal culture
Consists of what people say they should do and what they say they do.
Real culture
Refers to actual observed behavior
The actions that individuals take, both alone, and in groups, in forming and transforming cultural identities
International culture
Applies to culturally defined groups that extend across national boundaries
National culture
Refers to experiences, beliefs, customs, and values shared by people who have grown up in the same country.
The diverst cultural patterns and traditions associated with subgroups in the same country.
Cultural relativism
The view that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another.
The traits that tend to distinguish homo sapiens from other species. (kinship, family living, childcare, and food sharing)
Regularities that occur in different times and places but not in all cultures.
Traits or features of culture that are not generalized or widespread; rather, they are confined to a single place, culture, or society.
Native anthropologist
One who studies his or her own culture.
Cultures are integrated and patterned differently and display tremendous variation and diversity.
Cultures are integrated and patterned differently and display tremendous variation and diversity.
Something that can be creatively "read," interpreted, and assigned meaning by anyone who receives it.
Direct diffusion
When two cultures trade, intermarry, or wage war on one another
Forced diffusion
When one culture subjugates another and imposes its customs on the dominated group.
The exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact.
Independent invention
The process by which humans innovate, creatively finding new solutions to old and new problems.
Encompasses a series of processes, including diffusion and acculturation, working to promote change in a world in which nations and people are increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent.
Identity politics
Describes the political mobilization of nonnational identities.
Encompasses a set of assumptions and economic policies that have become widespread during the last 25-30 years and that are being implemented in capitalist and developing countries, including postsocialist societies.
Lower in rank, subordinate, traditionally lacking an influential role in decision making.
Civil society
Voluntary collective action around shared interests, goals, and values. Civil society encompasses NGOs
Nongovermental organizations (NGOs)
Registered, charities, community groups, women's organizations, faith-based and professional groups, trade unions, self-help groups, social movements, business associations etc....
Human rights
Challenges the nation-state by invoking a realm of justice and morality beyond and superior to particular countries, cultures, and religions.
Cultural rights
Vested not in individuals but in identifiable groups, such as religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples.
Intellectual property rights (IPR)
Claimed as a group right: a cultural right, allowing indigenous groups to control who may and use their collective knowledge and its applications.
The offspring of an area who have spread to many lands
Describes our time and situation: today's world in flux, with people on the move who have learned to manage multiple identities depending on place and context.
The blurring and breakdown of established rules or standards, categories, distinctions, and boundaries.
A style and movement in architecture that succeeded modernism, beginning in the 1970's. Rejected the rules.
Hegemonic reading
The reading or meaning that the creators intended, or the one that the elites consider to be the right meaning.
The active role that individuals play in interpreting, using, making, and remaking culture
Modified to fit the local culture
Multicultural society
The coesistence of culturally defined groups within a nation-state
Cognitive ties
What people think they know
The merging of groups and their traditions wichin a society that endorses a single common culture
Ethnic and racial difference should be allowed to thrive, so long as such diversity does not threaten dominant values and norms
Multiculturalism (MC)
1.) Recognizes a multiplicity of legitimate cultural cores or centers
2.) Acknowledges cultural criteria as the source of group formation
3.) Promotes Democratization and equity among groups
A psychological and political orientation that individuals construct and that is shared by people united by a common status or experience.
Affinity groups
MC as identity is expressed in the formation of affinity groups. These groups rival such institutions as the biological family, neighborhood, and local community. They take their place alondside older reference groups such as political parties, religious affiliations, unions, and professional organizations.
Ideational solidarity
Building relations, bonds, and loyalties through common knowledge.
Mobilizing agents
Elite members of minority groups who also belong to the national elite
Varied in appearance
Multiple centers (refers to MC)
Identity politics
The behavior and thought of culturally diverse categories of men and women who, by their personal choices, however biologically constrained or economically determined, create political realities.
Biological, social, and cultural similarities of a group
Biological, social, and cultural differences of a group
A belief in natural and fixed characteristics of human categories
EX: females as sensitive or homosexuals as flamboyant
Refers to the cultural and malleable creations of social realities
EX: dosproportionate number of women in service jobs or gay men in the fine arts/theater
Ethnic group
Share certain beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms because of their common background
Identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation
Encompasses the various positions that people occupy in society
Ascribed status
One that people have little or not choice about occupying
Achieved status
Status that isn't automatic, but comes through traits, talents, actions, efforts, activities, and accomplishments
Minority groups
Subordinate, they have inferior power and less secure access to resources
Majority groups
Superordinate, dominate, or controlling
An ethnic group that is assumed to have a biological basis
Discrimination against a race
An independent, centrally organized political unit, a government.
Such an autonomous political entity, a country, like the US or Canada
Ethnic groups that once had, or which to have or regain, autonomous political status (their own country)
Plural society
A society that combines ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization and the economic interdependence of those groups
Devaluing on a group because of its assumed behavior, values, capabilities, or attributes
Fixed ideas, often unfavorable
Refers to policies and practices that harm a group and its members
Attitudinal discrimination
People discriminate against members of a group because they are prejudiced toward that group.
The deliberate elimination of a group through mass murder
Institutional discrimination
Programs, policies, and institutional arrangements that deny equal rights and opportunities, to, or differentially harm, members of particular groups
Environmental racism
The systemic use of institutionally based power by whites to formulate policy decisions that will lead to the disproportionate burden of environmental hazards in minority communities
Leveling mechanisms
Customs of social actions that operate to reduce differences in wealth and bring standouts in line with community norms
When a dominate group tries to destroy the cultures of certain ethnic groups
Forced assimilation
Forcing people to adopt a culture
Ethnic expulsion
Aims at removing groups that are culturally different from a country
People who have been forced (involuntary refugees) or have chosen (voluntary refugees) to flee a country, to escape persecution or war.
A form of oppression refers to the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time
First World
The democratic west
Second World
The Warsaw Pact nations: former Soviet Union, the socialist and once-socialist countries of eastern Europe and Asia
Third World
The less-developed or developing countries
Cultural colonialism
Internal domination by one group and its culture/ideology over others
Advanced information technology: iPods, cell phones, computers