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111 Cards in this Set

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When an organism has physical traits and behaviors that allow it to survive in a particular environment
Adapted
Variants of a gene that code for different expressions of a trait
Alleles
The chief components of proteins
Amino acids
Specialized sweat glands that secrete an odorous substance thought to be sexually stimulating
Apocrine glands
Adapted to life in the trees
Arboreal
A specialist in the subfield of anthropology who studies the human cultural past and the reconstruction of past cultural systems
Archaeologist
Any object that has been consciously manufactured
Artifact
Selection for reproductive success in plants and animals that is directed by humans (also see selective breeding)
Artificial selection
Reproducing without sex, by fissioning or budding
Asexually
Ideas that are taken on faith and cannot be scientifically tested
Belief systems
A specialist in the subfield of anthropology who studies humans as a biological species
Biological Anthropologist
Walking on two legs
Bipedal
Moving using arm-over-arm swinging
Brachiating
A classification system based on order of evolutionary branching rather than on present similarities and differences
Cladistics
When both alleles of a pair are expressed in the phenotype
Codominant
A specialist in the subfield of anthropology who focuses on human cultural behavior and cultural systems and the variation in cultural expression among human groups
Cultural Anthropologist
Studying another culture from its point of view without imposing our own cultural values
Cultural relativity
Ideas and behaviors that are learned and transmitted. Nongenetic means of adaptation. The extra-somatic adaptive process used by hominidae. Total way of life of a group of people.
Culture
The molecule that carries the genetic code
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Here, the period after birth during which offspring require the care of adults to survive
Dependency
An old term for what we now call biological evolution
Descent with Modification
Active during the day
Diurnal
Individual differences in power, influence, and access to resources and mating
Dominance hierarchy
The allele that is expressed in a pair of unlike alleles
Dominant
The science that studies the network of relationships within environmental systems
Ecology
A specific set of environmental relationships. A unit of study within ecology
Ecosystem
In nonhuman mammals, the period of female fertility or the signals indicating this condition
Estrus
In biology, the idea that species change over time and have a common ancestry
Evolution
Here, the splitting up of a population to form new populations
Fission
A system of classification based on the relationships among cultural categories for important items and ideas
Folk taxonomy
Remains of life-forms of the past
Fossils
Genetic differences between populations produced by the fact that genetically different individuals established (founded) the populations
Founder Effect
The genetic change caused when genes are passed to new generations in frequencies unlike those of the parental generations
Gamete sampling
The cells of reproduction, which contain only half the chromosomes of a normal cell
Gametes
The cultural categories and characteristics of men and women
Gender
The exchange of genes among populations through interbreeding
Gene flow
All the genes in a population
Gene pool
Technically, those portions of the DNA molecules that code for the production of specific proteins
Genes
Genetic change based on random changes within a species’ gene pool; includes fission and the founder effect, and gamete sampling
Genetic drift
The alleles possessed by an organism
Genotypes
Massive sheets of ice that expand and move
Glaciers
Cleaning the fur of another animal, which promotes social cohesion
Grooming
The place occupied by a species; the species’ “address”
Habitat
To attach a handle or shaft
Haft
Having two different alleles in a gene pair
Heterozygous
Assuming an interrelationship among the parts of a subject
Holistic
Modern human beings and our ancestors, defined as the primates who walk erect
Hominids
Having two of the same allele
Homozygous
A cultural rule that prohibits sexual intercourse or marriage between persons defined as being too closely related
Incest taboo
Native; refers to a group of people with a long history in a particular area
Indigenous
The incorrect idea that traits acquired during an organism’s lifetime can be passed on to its offspring
Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
A specialist in the subfield of anthropology who describes the characteristics of human language and studies the relationships between languages and the cultures that speak them
Linguistic Anthropologist
A mutation with extensive and important physical results
Macromutation
A set of cultural rules for bringing men and women together to create a family unit and for defining their behavior toward one another, their children, and society
Marriage
Any spontaneous change in the genetic code
Mutation
Evolutionary change based on the differential reproductive success of individuals within a species
Natural selection
The environment of an organism and its adaptive response to that environment
Niche
Active at night
Nocturnal
The family unit made up of parents and their children
Nuclear family
Referring to the sense of smell
Olfactory
The ability to touch the thumb to the tips of the other fingers on the same hand
Opposability
The period when an egg cell matures and is capable of being fertilized
Ovulation
The study of past life-forms using fossil remains and their geological contexts
Paleontology
The chemical or physical results of the genetic code
Phenotype
A chemical substance secreted by an animal that conveys information and stimulates behavior responses
Pheromones
The traditional name for biological anthropologist
Physical Anthropologist
The geological period from 1.6 millions to 10,000 years ago characterized by a series of glacial advances and retreats
Pleistocene
Referring to a society in which a man may have multiple wives
Polygynous
Having the ability to grasp
Prehensile
Molecules that make cells and carry out cellular functions
Proteins
Scientifically testable ideas that are taken on faith, even if tested and shown to be false
Pseudoscience
Walking on all fours
Quadrapedal
An allele that is only expressed if present in a like pair
Recessive
The molecule that, in two forms, translates and transcribes the genetic code into proteins
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Physical differences between the sexes of a species not related to reproductive functions
Sexual dimorphism
The evolution of a new species
Speciation
A group of organisms that can produce fertile offspring among themselves but not with members of other groups
Species
Three-dimensional vision; depth perception
Stereoscopic
Layers; Here, the layers of rock and soil under the surface of the earth
Strata
The study of the earth’s strata
Stratigraphy
A classification using nested sets of categories
Taxonomy
A general idea that explains a large set of factual patterns
Theory
The method of inquiry that requires the generation, testing, and acceptance or rejection of hypotheses
Science
The process of conducting scientific inquiry
Scientific Method
Proposed explanations for natural phenomena
Hypotheses
The process of developing a general explanation from specific observations
Induction
Suggesting specific data that would be found if a hypothesis were true
Deduction
Strands of DNA in the nucleus of a cell
Chromosome
The holistic, scientific study of humankind
Anthropology
When a new form of adaptive strategy emerges in evolutionary process it often leads to a geologically sudden increase in the number of species evolving from the original form into new and separate species with that new strategy. When this is seen in the phylogeny, it is called…
Adaptive radiation
A theory based on Biblical information that held that natural disasters were responsible for the many extinct life forms found in the geological record
Catastrophism
Suggesting specific data that would be found if a hypothesis were true
Deduction
The term which describes the attitude held by a person or a group of people that his/her/their own culture is superior to all others
Ethnocentrism
The notion that evolution is leading onward and upward to some higher and more perfect form
Evolutionary progressionism
Proposed explanations for natural phenomena
Hypothesis
The process of developing a general explanation from specific observations
Induction
In the medieval period, the system by which scholars classified the living animals by ranking them from the simplest at the bottom to the most complex at the top.
Ladder of life (Chain of being)
A way to explain natural or cultural phenomena in a culture’s context
Myth
Evolutionary change relatively quickly between stable periods
Punctuated equilibrium
The method of inquiry that requires the generation, testing, and acceptance or rejection of hypotheses
Science
The process of conducting scientific inquiry
Scientific method
When bisexual animals mate, it can be observed that members of a given species may show marked tendencies to favor certain traits in the opposite sex; when this preference shapes the evolving species’ genotype and in turn phenotype, we call this process…
Sexual selection
A group of people who are organized to live productively together by sharing a common culture
Society
Goal oriented; Evolution is not this
Teleological
The contemporary of Darwin who formulated a theory of evolution much the same as his
Alfred Russell Wallace
The man who, using the genealogies of the Bible, calculated that the earth was created in the year 4004 B.C.
Archbishop Usher of Armagh
The father of modern geology
Charles Lyle
The monk who sorted out the process of genetic inheritance, determining such processes as dominance, recessiveness, etc.
Gregor Mendel
The man who developed a theory that stated that any organism would pass on to its offspring any characteristics acquired by it during it efforts in life
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
The man who developed a population growth model for world populations that predicted serious crisis level of growth and food shortages, and whose work helped Darwin envision his theory of evolution
Thomas Malthus
Swedish botanist who is the father of modern taxonomy
Carl von Linné (Carolus Linnaeus)