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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Pre-primates associated with Paleocene

> NOT primates
Primates associated with Eocene
Adapids & Omomyids
Primates associated with Oligocene
Propliopthecines & Parapithecines
Primates associated with Miocene
Proconulines & Sivapithecines
Primates associated with Pliocene
Ardipithecus -> Australopithecus
Paleocene (65-55 mya)

NOT primates
> longer snout
> NO postorbital bar
> eyes on side of head
> smaller brain
> claws, not nails
> NON-prehensile hands and feet
Adapids & Omomyids
Eocene (55-34 mya)

FIRST primates
> eyes facing forward
> postorbital bar
> relatively short snout
> nails
> prehensile hands and feet
Location of Eocene primate fossils
North America and Europe
> two continents connected by Greenland

LATE Eocene: Asia and North Africa
Environment of Eocene primate fossils
Tropical and sub-tropical
Phylogeny of Adapids
ancestral to lemurs and lorises
Pylogeny of Omomyids
ancestral to torises, traisers AND anthropoids
Behavior and Diet of Eocene primates
Adapids & Omomyids

>ALL arboreal quadrupeds
>absence of toothcomb

>some nocturnal, other diurnal
>some insectivores, other frugivores or folivores
When were the first anthropoids found? What are the lineages?
Oligocene (34-23 mya)
> 35-33 mya

Propliopithecines & Parapithecines
Oligocene anthropoids

Propliopithecus & Aegyptopithecus

2,1,2,3/2,1,2,3 (same as catarrhines)
> ancestral to Old World Monkeys and hominoids

> 12-18 lbs
Oligocene (34-23mya)

Parapithecus & Apidium

> ancestral to New World Monkeys

> 2-6 pounds
Behavior and Diet of Oligocene Primates
Propliopithecines & Parapithecines

Diet: frugivory
Diurnal, Arboreal Quadrupeds

> sexual dimorphism in canine size suggest a polygynous organization
When were the first hominoids found in fossil record?
23 mya

Miocene (23-5 mya)

> based on Y-5 cusp pattern on inner molars
When did maximum diversity of ape species occur?
Miocene (23-5 mya)
When did ape and hominoid lineages diverge?
late Miocene (9-6 mya)
Where are Miocene primate fossils found?

Africa- Early Miocene (23-16 mya)

Africa, Europe, & Asia (after 16 mya)
> Africa was separated from Europe & Asia by Tethys Sea
> 16 mya- Arabian plate provided corridor b/w Africa and Asia
Miocene hominoids found in Africa
(1) Proconsul
(2) Afropithecus
(3) Kenyapithecus
Miocene hominoids found in Europe
(1) Dryopithecus
Miocene hominoids found in Asia
(1) Sivapithecus
Classification of Miocene hominoids based on Dentition
> Proconsul (Af) & Dryopithecus (E)

smaller molars (v. larger)
thinner enamel (v. thicker)
thin gracile mandible (v. robust)

(compared to Sivapithecines)
> Sivapithecus (As), Kenyapithecus (Af), Afropithecus (Af)
Implication of dental difference between Miocene hominoids
Proconsulines (small molars, thinner enamel, gracile mandible)
>soft fruit


Sivapithecines (large, thick, robust)
> nuts & seeds

>>> due to ecological changes in Middle Miocene (tropical forest -> varied: t.forest, woodland, grassland)
Which Miocene hominoid is believed to be ancestral to Pongo?
Which is considered the earliest hominoid? Why?

> because of Y-5 cusp pattern

> arboreal quadruped (monkey-like postcranium)
8-6 mya to 500,000 ya

Found in: Pakistan, India, China, Vietnam (Asia)

Dental: small incisors & canines; large molars w/ thick enamel- bamboo?

> 500-600 lbs
> likely terrestrially adapted
Body Characteristics of Pliocene Primates
Ardipithecus & Australopithecus

>small canine size

> sagittal crest
What is the earliest evidence of hominids being bipedal?
4 mya

Au. Anamensis
Name of earliest stone tools? Date?
Oldowan tools (2.6 mya)
What type of environment were early hominid species associated with?
Mostly savanna
> some woodland

> context in which bipedality emerged
In which hominid did the sagittal crest arise?

> however earliest Homo do not have crest
Hypotheses on Selective Advantage of Bipedality
(1) increase in visual range
(2) free the hands to carry Oldowan tools
(3) Free hands to carry digging implements
(4) Free hands to harvest small fruits
(5) Free hands to carry food
Provisioning Theory
Theory regarding the selective advantage of BIPEDALITY
> C. Owen Lovejoy

> shorter interbirth intervals (2.5 yrs) = multiple dependent offspring

> paternal assistance required -> early hominids monogamous
Problems with Theory of Selective Advantage of Bipedality

> Increase in Visual Range
Why is the savanna baboon NOT bipedal?

Bipedalism is slow mode of locomotion to escape from predators
Problems with Theory of Selective Advantage of Bipedality

> Free hands to carry Oldowan tools
Earliest Oldowan tools = 2.6 mya

Earliest evidence of bipedality = 4 mya
Problems with Theory of Selective Advantage of Bipedality

> Free hands to carry digging implements
Earliest digging implements = < 2 mya

Earliest evidence of bipedality = 4 mya
Problems with Theory of Selective Advantage of Bipedality

> Free hands to harvest small fruits
> similar to Chimpanzees harvesting food

> earliest hominids and chimps differ in dental anatomy and therefore diet
What are the dates Homo erectus existed?

Where were fossils found?
1.8 mya - 200,000ya
> originated in Africa
>1st hominid to migrate from Africa

Africa (1.8mya)
Asia (1.6mya)
Eastern Europe (1.75mya)
Western Europ (1.2mya)
Morphologies of H. erectus in comparison to EARLIER and LATER hominids
(1) ↑ cranial capacity v. EARLIER Homo & Australopithecines; ↓ v. humans
(2) ↓ molar size, no change incisor size v. EARLIER Homo
(3) prominent supraorbital torus (browbridge)
(4) sagittal ridge
(5) facial prognathism
(6) no chin
(7) angulation of back of skull
(8) thicker cranial & postcranial bones v. EARLIER & LATER Homo
Social Organization and Behavior of Homo erectus
> hunter gatherer
> used Acheulian tools
> use of fire (Zhoukoudian by 500,000 ya)
> probably use of clothing
> no evidence of burial
Dates and Location of Homo heidelbergensis
(850,000-200,000 ya)

> Africa, Europe, and perhaps Asia
Morphologies of Homo heidelbergensis
> mean cranial capacity at 1,177 cm3 (Larger than H. erectus, smaller than humans)
> ↓ molar size v. H. erectus
> ↑ incisor size v. H. erectus
> ↓ skeletal robustness v. H. erectus
Date and Location of Homo neanderthalensis
(130,000-32,000 ya)

>Europe and Western Asia

>contemporaries of Neandertals, other pre-moder humans, in Africa
Morphologies of Homo neanderthalensis
> mean cranial capacity 1520 cm3 (larger than H. heidelbergensis AND modern humans)
> occipital bun
> ↓ molar teeth
> ↑ incisor teeth
> no chin
> prognathic face
> prominent supraorbital torus
> large nose
> high body mass
> short arms and legs
Mean cranial capacity of humans
1350 cm3
Mean cranial capacity of Homo neanderthalensis
1520 cm3
Mean cranial capacity of Homo habilis
631 cm3
Mean cranial capacity of Homo erectus
900 cm3
Social Behavior of Homo neanderthalensis
> assisted disabled individuals (survived trama to skeletons, much have been cared for)
> FIRST members of Homo to bury their dead deliberately
> lived in caves, rock overhangs, open air sites
> Hunter gatherer
> NO cave paintings
Two (2) Models to explain Homo sapiens species Origin
(1) Regional Continuity Model
> worldwise and simultaneous evolution of erectus -> heidelbergensis -> Neandertals -> modern human

(2) Complete Replacement Model (Recent African Evolution)
> modern human speciation about 200,000 in Africa, later migrated
Generalizations of Homo evolution
(1) increase in cranial capacity
(2) increase in incisor size to Neandertal, then decrease in amh
(3) decrease in molar size
Importance of Africa in human evolution
(1) hominids originated in Africa
(2) Homo originated in Africa
(3) H. erectus originated in Africa (then migrated)
(4) ~ H. sapiens originated in Africa (then migrated)